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125 774 

The Author 





Being an attempt to give the general 
American public a fuller knowledge 
and a better understanding of the 
Chinese people in the United States 

By J. S. TOW 

Secretary of the Chinese Consulate General at New York 
with the Rank of Consul-Eleve 

Published by 

112 Fourth Ave., N- Y. C. 

Copyright 1923 

To My Cousin 


Former Chinese Consul at New York 


Minister to the United States 



Introduction by Hon. Ziangling Chang, Chinese Con- 
sul General at New York xi 
Preface -------- xv 

Introductory The Motherland of the Chinese - 19 

I. The Cause of the Early Chinese Immigration 27 

II. The Result of the Forty Years of Exclusion 33 

'HI. Distribution and Composition of Population 39 

IV. Living Conditions 47 

V. Morality and Behavior - - - 57 

VI. Assimilation - , - - - 67 

VII. Occupations >#"*** ^1 . . . 75 

VIII. Commercial and Industrial Enterprises - 81 

IX* Organizations ------ 99 

X. Legal Treatment - - - - - 117 

XL Social Treatment 127 

XII. Conclusion 139 



I. The Chino-American Treaty of 1880 - 153 

II. A Classified List of Important Chinese Firms 

in America * 157 

III. A List of Important Chinese Organizations 

in America 163 

IV. A List of Chinese Publications in America 165 

V. A List of Christian Missions Undertaken by 
or in Conjunction with Chinese Christ- 
ians in America - 167 


The Author - Frontispiece 

Chinese Antique Store on Fifth Avenue, New York 32 
The Canton Bank Building- in San Francisco - 48 

The Clubhouse of the On Leong Merchants' Asso- 
ciation in New York ----- 64 

The Chinese Parade During the Fourth Liberty 

Loan Campaign in 1918, on "China Block" - 80 

The Oldest Chinese Restaurant on Mott Street, 

New York 96 

The Telephone Station in San Francisco "China- 
town" --96 

The Building of the Chinese-American Citizens' 

Alliance in San Francisco - - - - 112 

The Office of a Chinese Bank on Wall Street, New 

York 128 

First Issue of the Oldest Chinese Newspaper in 

New York 144 


The usefulness of this book can be readily 
understood. There can be! found no book giving 
such a full account of the Chinese in tlhe United 
States as this, although there axe several books 
writtem on the question of 'Chineise! immigration. 
This book gives information concerning the life, 
character, business and organizations of the 
Chinese people here from the viewpoint of a 
Chinese observer, 'and being a Chinese ihe cerrtainly 
is qualified to give isuch information, as it is 
impossible for an Americami to d 

As a whole, the American people have never 
been given an opportunity to know the Chinese 
truly and fully. Comparatively few Americans 
know that there! are, for instance, large Chinese 
trading corporations, banks atod steamship liraes. 
Fewer know thait the Chinese here have been 
building modern houses in their colonies. Still 
fewer know that Chinese organizationis in this 
country have been working towards the advance- 
ment and Americanization to their people. But 
/this book affords one to know all these facts and 
more. Readers of this book will not fail to know 
that the Chinese are as intelligent and respectable 


as amy other people in the world and that they 
are not merely laundrymen! 

This knowledge seems to be more important in 
view of the prevalence of some fidtion-s, motion 
pictures and exhibitions, which depict the Chinese 
people in such a way as to discredit theih, to 
arouse racial hatred and to estrange friendship 
between the two mtiotnis. The misimpresstofns 
and misunderstandings, Which these fictions, mo- 
tion pictures and exhibition^ 'have created in the 
mind of the American public, must be rectified 
and corrected, and in rectifying and correcting 
them this book caoi do a good service. 

The chapters on legal and social treatment of 
the Chinese in this country are of equal impor- 
tance, as the American public is scarcely aware 
of it. If the (treatment is. right -and fair, the 
American public should rightly be proud of it; 
while if not, it may become aware of it from these 

In expressing his opinion, the author is most 
fair. He praises good points of 'his fellow citizens 
dm this country, where praises 'are due, but he 
also condemns unreservedly their shortcomings 
which reflect upon the good name of their nation. 
While he criticises certain unfair treatment which 
the Chinese have received here, he does not fail to 

appreciate .the good will of those who have helped 
and understood them* 

The author has been in this country for the 
'last eight yeara, during which *ime he -has had 
excellent opportunities in studying the conditions 
of iflne Chinese people here and matters concerning 
them. His experience in the Consular work has 
perhaps hdped (him in writing the book; but it 
is undoubtedly his anxiety ini bringing about a 
better understanding between the peoples of the 
two great sister Republics that has prompted him 
to do this work. 

He makes a number of constructive suggestions 
for achieving a better understanding and a closer 
friendship between the two peoples, so far as he 
deems necessary. These suggestions should, 
therefore, be accepted in the same spirit as they 
are offered, and the author, who has devoted 60 
much of his time outside of his duties in the 
Consulate GeneraJ, should be given due credit for 
the worthy work he has done. 

Chinese Consul General at New York 


The purpose of tBife book is threefold. First, 
it is intended to brimg out some important facts 
concerning the Chinese in the United States today 
their living conditions, their morality and be- 
havior, assimilation, occupations, business and 
organizations with occasionual reference to the 
'historical background for comparison^ The things 
the American public knows of the Chinese 'here 
are either not quite representative or not repre- 
sentative at alL Because of this the knowledge 
of the American public of the Chinese and their 
affairs has been not omly limited, but also incor- 
rect This limited and incorrect knowledge has 
stood in the way of promoting friendship between 
the two peoples 'and, unless it is improved and 
corrected, a better understanding cannot be 

Secoiiwily, it is intended to express a Chinese 
viewpoint of the affairs of 'Chinese in this country 
and of the treatment they receive here as aliens. 
Heretofore, the Chinese viewpoint has beein seldom 
expressed to the American public. The Chinese 
might take action to defend their rights, but 
seldom have they sought public opinion. When 

mistreated or misunderstood, they might try to 
remedy the situation, but very seldom have they 
appealed to the public. It is perhaps because of 
this Ifliat they have not been better understood 
and better treated. 

Thirdly, it is intended to interest the American 
public in the discuission of those things that con- 
cern the Chinese in this country wi/tih a view to 
realizing a fuller umdecnstanding and a better 
friendship between the two peoples. While it is 
gratifying to note that the relations between the 
two Republics have long been cordial and friendly, 
working for a fuller understanding between the 
two peoples cannot yet be considered an unneces- 
sary ta'sk. 

In discussing the legal treatment of the Chineise 
in this country, I have taken pains to avoid the 
question of naturalization simply because I deem 
the present time inopportune to raise it. While 
the Chiniese are not fully accorded their treaty 
rights, how cam! they hope for other rights and 
privileges? This question, I venture to hope, will 
be favorably settled some day, when American 
democracy approaches perfection. 

The information in the following chapters has 
been gathered through my personal inquiry. 
Owing to the fact tihaJt my personal efforts are 

necessarily limited and that TO otoher means are 
at my disposal I do oiiot pretend to assume that 
the facts given here are altogether complete, 
^specially as iflie Chinese advance with great 
rapidity from day to day. 

Furthermore, I wish to emphasize the fact that 
this book is written entirely upon my own private 
behalf and is in no way connected! with any official 
or private organization. I write it as a citizen, 
to whom opportunity 'has been afforded in 1 observ- 
ing the affairs and conditions of his countrymen 
here during his eight years in this country. The 
opinion there expressed), though representing a 
Chinese viewpoint, is (therefore merely personal. 

In conclusion, I wish to express my gratitude 
to those who have kindly rendered me their valu- 
able assistance in securing information, especially 
Mr. T. H. Mei, President of the Ohiniese Consoli- 
dated Benevolent Association of New York, and 
Mr. Harry T. Yip, Secretary of the Chinese- 
American Citizens' Alliance in San Francisco. My 
thanks are due to those who responded to my 
inquiries and supplied me with information de- 

To those American* friends who were kind 
enough to give me! willingly upon my request their 
opinions on the Chinese in this country, I desire 

to express my indebtedness and gratitude for 
their expression of friendly feelings and their 
good words. 

Acknowledgment must be made to the Bureau 
of the Census of the Department of Commerce in 
Washington for the use of isome of the material, 
and a part of the XIV (1920) Census, which was 
given me before publication (through the kindness 
of Mr. W. M. Stewart, Director of the Bureau. 

J. S. TOW. 
New York, January 1923. 



The Motherland of the Chinese 

This chapter may seem out of place in this book, 
but it is considered necessary for the reason that 
the book is intended for the general American 
public. To those who have lijttle or no knowledge 
of China and the Ohinelse, this short sketch may 
do a good service in giving them a historical and 
general view of the country from which the 
Chinese in the United States have come. 

Chinese history goes back as far as 2800 B. C* 
The early emperors, Fu Hee, Shen Nung, and 
Huang Ti, created writing, the calendar, the 
compass, measurements, musical instruments, and 
agricultural and living implements. Houses of 
more than one story were built. Silk and herbs 
had been discovered. Trade was done at noon 
and transportation throughout the territories was 
opened. Political system; was im evidence. 

There came Yao and Shun, 2357-2206 B. C., 
under whom the earliest Chinese Republic was 
established 'and Whose mild and exemplary redgns 
are lauded eveinj (today. Yu, the engineer who 
eiaved the country from t!he flood of the Huang Ho, 
or Yellow River, established the Hsia Dynasty 



(2205-1784 B. C.), which was succeeded by Shang 
Dynasty (1783-1123 B. C.), during which Chinese 
civilization was developed still further. 

At the beginning of Ohou Dynasty (1122-249 
B. C.), Ohou Kung, or Duke Chou, {standardized 
ceremonies and music, and composed the Chou Li, 
a description of (the organization of the governr 
menit and ceremonies. It was in this period that 
Lao Tsu (604 B. CO, the founder of Taoism, and 
Confucius (551 B. C.), the greatest of all Chinese 
philosophers and the snunciator of Golden Rule, 
and Mencius, the great apostle of Confucius, a 
contemporary of Plato, were born, lived and did 
their great work. 

Chin SMh Huang Ti became the "First Uni- 
versal Emperor" in 220 B. C. Durimg his reign 
the Great Wall, 800 miles in length, was com- 
pleted, remaining one of the oldest and greatest 
works of mankind. 

In 102 A. D. General Pan Chau, who was gent 
by the emperor of Han to discover the West, 
reached the shores of the Caspian Sea. His sister, 
Pan Tsao, an authoress of note, was the first 
woman appointed Misfe"ess of Pioetry, Eloquence, 
and History for the Empress, Tfae imperial library 



then contained more than 10,000 volumes. Arts 
and literature and philosophy were greatly ad- 

At the dosing of the sixth century, the Great 
Canal of China, 'about 700 miles long, was con- 
structed, which remains as another of the? great 
human undertaking. When the Tang Dynasty 
(618-906 A. D.) came into existence at the begin- 
ning of the seventh cetnitury, China reached the 
greatest point in; her history. The Imperial Uni- 
versity in the Capital wa<s attended not only by 
thousands of her citizens, but also by a number 
of Japanese, Koreans and other people. The 
famous poet, Li Po, and the celebrated artist, Wu 
Tao Yuan, lived in this period. Governmental as 
well as social -systems were developed to a greater 
extent than ever before. 

When Europe was in the Dark Ages China tried 
out a system of state socialism under the Sung 
Dynasty (960-1126 A. D.). In (the eleventh cen- 
tury the Premier, Wang An Shih, a socialist, actu- 
ally put inito practice a political system wlhich was 
not even thought of in the West until centuries 
later. But it failed on account of the strong and 
persistent opposition of the conservatives, who 
opposed the revolution rather than the system. 



In the fifteenth century, the first great ency- 
clopedia was published, which required the work 
of 2,000 scholars and contained 500,000 pages. 
During the Ming Dynasty (1368-1643 A. D.), 
literature, art, and philosophy were further ad- 
vanced, and in the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries, they flourished again under the leader- 
ship of Emperors Kang Esi and Ohien Lung. 

Furthermore, there was muclh isolated ingenu- 
ity and invention throughout the Chinese history. 
"The Chinese knew of gunpowder in the sixth 
century/* says H. G. Wells in his "Outline of 
History" ; "They used coal and gas heating centu- 
ries before these things were used in Europe; 
their bridge-building, (their hydraulic engineering 
were admirable; the knowledge of materials shown 
in their enamel and lacquer ware is very great." 
Continuing lie says : "Chinese produced a profu- 
sion of beautiful art, some delightful poetry, 
astonishing cookery, -and thousands of millions 
of glowingly pleasant lives generation after gen- 
eration . . . And these things were attained 
without any such general boredom, servitude, 
Mignity, and misery as underlay the rule of tlbe 
rich, in the Roman Empire." 

But China's civilization came to a decay in (the 



nineteenth century under the Manchu regime. 
The morale of the nation was lowered. The cor- 
ruption of the officialdom caused a general de- 
moralization of the government. The country was 
mismanaged, the peaceful life of the people dis- 
turbed, and (the productivity of the Elation greatly 
reduced. Bandits began ito appear. Famine aaid 
civil wans canae -to ruin the whole country. China 
then needed a reorganization and a revival of her 
civilization, even though there were no foreign 

Unfortunately for China, foreign invasions 
came -at just -this time This foreign invasion was 
very much more persistent and more menacing 
than any fof those in 'her history, because it was 
backed up by a modern -scientific civilization which 
China lacked. The disorganized and corrupt 
Manchu government was too weak to combat any 
organized and efficient forces. It was quite logical 
that the consequence of tihe meeting between (the 
weak but boasting Manchu -government ( and the 
trained Western forces, equipped with modern 
scientific weapons, was a series of military defeats 
wfeich caused China not only the degradaftion of 
her former position, but also incalculable material 
loss in territory, lives, riches 'and rights. And at 



the beginning of the twentieth century, after 
sixty years of struggle with foreign nations, 
during which time tihe igmorant Manchu govern- 
ment could not wake up to the necessity of adopt- 
ing Western culture, China was almost broken into 
pieces. The misrule of the Manchu Dynasty could 
no longer be tolerated and (the country must be 

Meanwhile, modern philosophies and republican 
ideas had taken root in China, in spite of the 
ignorant resistance of the Empress Dowager. 
Thanks to the efforts of Yen Fuh, Lianig Chi Chiao 
and other leading scholars of China, works of 
Spencer, Darwin, Huxley,* Adam Smith and others 
were translated, interpreted and widely circulated. 
Newspapers, periodicals and books advocating 
revolution and republican idaas hastened the 
awakening of the niation. Im 1911 the Manchu 
Dynasty was overthrown, earlier than expected, 
and the Chinese Republic was established. 

At -the same ltdme, miodern sciences have been 
introduced through the efforts of foreign mission- 
aries and Chinese students in foreign countries. 
Foreign languages, historiejs and geographies have 
beeft added to the courses of public schools. Mod- 
ern methods of education, iof public works, of busi- 
ness and of industry have been put into practice. 



And today, after only twenty-five years of hard 
work, China 'has gained a knowledge of the West 
and the Western culture, greater than what the 
West has gained of China. 

Yet the world today wonders why China is .still 
politically disorganized and financially insolvent. 
How can China be politically well organized after 
this great change of government? In the first two 
decades of the United States, the thirteen states 
were -scarcely more united than the Norlfch and the 
South of China today. The Chinese Republic is 
only twelve years old and China is ten times 
larger than were the thirte'en states and has one 
hundred times the population. 

How caa China be financially solvent, when she 
must pay large amounlts of indemnity to a number 
of countries every year, when 'her customs and 
other incomes are mortgaged, wh'en her tariff is 
limited to only five per cent ad valorem on all 

China must be given time amd freedom in her 
own affairs. Judging from what s'he has dome 
in the past, we can be assured of her ability to 
solve her problems and of her great future. Be 
patient, be cioinside^ate, and we shall surely see a 
new, strong China and 'a nfcw Chinese civilization. 



The Cause of the Early Chinese Immigration 

It is unfortunate that the Chinese wiho first 
came to the United States were of {the laboring 
class. It is more unfortunate that the first influx 
was in large numbers. This class of people have 
made a very unfavorable impression upon the 
American public towards the Chinese people; they 
caused great friction for many years between (this 
country and China; and they created misunder- 
standings between the two peoples. Although 
they have been excluded, the ill-effects of their 
pres'ence still remain. Even today, the general 
American public would not readily recognize a 
Chinese gentleman He is usually taken for a 
Japanese, as he is well dressed and has a good 

The eariier class of Chinese immigrants has 
been responsible/ for the ill treatment of the 
Chinese in this country. The merchants, students 
and others who' (have treaty righits to enter the 
United States still 'have to bear hardships which 
they would miot have to bear if that earlier class 
of their countrymen, had. not come. 


The coming of *he Chinese to this country in 
large numbers began about 1850, from which, date 
the number of Chinese immigrants increased every 
year. In 1854, 13,100 were admitted. They all 
came from Canton, or to be exact, from Kwang 
Tung Province whose capital is. Canton, the city 
being the port of their departure. The 1860 
census reported 34,933 Chinese in the United 
States- J In spite of the rapid increase in Chinese 
population in this country, Chinese immigration 
was favored; and though the average annual rate 
of Chinese immigration in the next few years was 
3,000, a treaty was signed between (this country 
and China in 1868 to en<courage,m,ore immigratiorf. 
The following article was part of the treaty: 

"The United Stages of America aiid the 
Emperor of China cordially recognize the 
inherent and inalienable right of man to 
change his home and allegiance, and also the 
free migration and emigration of tJueir citi- 
zens and subjects respectively, from the one 
country to the other, for the purposes of curi- 
osity, of trade or as permanent residents." 
(Proclaimed July 28, 1868.) 
Furthermore, the Act of the same year revising 
the Statutes of the United States provided' the 
following paragraph which was intended to en- 
courage foreign immigration: 



"Whereas, The right iof expatriation is a 
natural and inherent right 'of all people, indis- 
pensible to the enjoyment of the rights of 
life, liberty ( and the pursuit of happiness ; and 

'Whereas, in the recognition of this prin- 
ciple this government has freely received 
emigrants from all nations and invested them 
with the rights of citizenship; and 

"Whereas, fit is claimed that such American 
citizens, with their descendants, are subjects 
of foreign states, owinig allegiance to the gov- 
ernment thereof; and 

"Whereas, it is necessary to the mainte- 
nance of public peace that this claim of for- 
eign allegiance should be promptly and finally 

"Therefore, any declaration, instruction, 
opinion, order or decision) of any officer of the 
United States which denies, restricts, impairs 
or questions the right of expatriation, as de- 
clared inconsistent with the fundamental 
principles of (the Kepublic." (Act of July 
27, 1868.) 

The result of this treaty and this law was an 
even greater influx of Chinese immigrants. In 
1870 the Chinese population in this country was 
63,199, an increase of 28,000 in ten yeans. The 
next decade saw a still greater increase and in 
1880, the peak of Chinese immigration was 
reached, niamely 105,465. 

To know why the Chinese came to (this country 


in such numbers during those two decades, where 
they went and what they did in this country, it 
is necessary to review the conditions in Cali- 
fornia in that period. 

California was then not yet developed. Its set- 
tlements were few and inconsiderable when the 
vast area west of Missouri was topened for settle- 
ment. It was too isolated, too remote and too 
difficult of a/cces's to receive any great increase 
of population. State afteir state had been admit- 
ted into the Union sinfce the annexation of Cali- 
fornia. Majny H)f them had outstripped her in 
growth. With all her wonderful resource^ she was 
too heavily handicapped to make great progress. 
She lacked water communications and primarily 
needed railroads, particularly a trans-continental 
railway. Her swamp lands needed reclamation; 
her mines, opening; her farms, cultivation; sund 
other industries needed developing. But the ac- 
complishment of all these -great works which 
brought California the riches and glories that are 
hers today, came sooner than expected. And the 
Chinese, so condemned and despfeed in that whole 
region, were largely instrumental in bringing 
about that result.* 

* George F. Sew<ard, "CMn'e&e Immigration in Its Social and 
Economic Aspects," pp. 16-17. 



The Chinese who were brought to this country 
were mostly assigned to these great works in 
California. It was towards the close of the '70s 
when the demand for Chinese labor gradually 
decreased. The Central Pacific and the Union 
Pacific railways were completed; the 5,500,000 
acres of swamp lands in California were mostly 
reclaimed; the mines there and in other western 
states were opened ; the farms on the Pacific coast 
were developed, and general industrieis in ithe West 
reached a much higher stage of development than 
ten or twenty years before. 

Meantime, a great flood of European immigrants 
arrived in California; they wefre also of laboring 
cla&s. The labor elements had been organized and 
began to assert their influences. They gradually 
became powerful and wefre now able to sway the 
whole western country in politics. And not until 
then it was discovered that the Chinese were use- 
less, undesirable and unassimilable immigrants ! 
The question of Chinese immigration thus entered 
politics in this country. It became a subject of 
the party platform, and even lof planks in a presi- 
denltial campaign. Finally the! wlto-le country 
yielded to the demand of the anti-Chinese party. 
The Chinese, who were inivited here to develop 



California, who were guaranteed protection by 
treaty and statute, were now subjected to mob 
violence in the 'hands of thoise who organized 
ithemselves mainly for the purpose of securing 
better treatment for themselves ! 

In 1880 the 'government of tihe United States 
signed a treaty with Ohima, securing the latter's 
consent ito a temporary suspension of immigration 
of Chinese laborers irito America. And in 1882 
the first exclusion law was passed by Congress. 







The Result of Forty Yeans of Exclusion 

The first ten years (1880-1890) of the exclusion 
of Chinese laborers from immigration into this 
country caused a great deal of confusion and 
resulted in successfully 'halting the influx of 
Chinese. The Chinese population for thart; decade 
increased only 2,000, whereas it Jbad increased 
42,000 in' the ten year,s previous. Thus, when the 
Chinese population in this country in 1880 was 
105,465, in 1890 it was 107,488. 

This decrease did not satisfy the anti-Chinese 
party. In 1892 a wholesale exclusion law was 
passed which was intended to exclude all Chinese 
from immigration into this country, except a few 
restricted classes. This law required a registry 
tion of all the Chinese already in America. Many 
who did not register on account of ignorance were 
subsequently deported. The! earning of a liveli- 
hood became more difficult for the Chinese here. 
Those who were frightened by the constant riots 
and the new laws began to return home or to seek 
refuge in other countries. Therefore, these laws 
worked not only toward the exclusion of the 
Chinese from immigration, but also to exclude 



those already in this country, although the latter, 
when registered, were enititled to remain. Thus, 
the result of exclusion laws in the decade 1890- 
1900 was that it reduced the Chinese population 
to 89,863 a decrease of about 18,000. This rigid 
policy of exclusion continued 'and for the next ten 
years another 18,000 reduction was noted and in 
1910 the Chinese population in the United States 
was only 71,531. 

After the second exclusion law 'had become 
effective, a treaty was 'signed between China and 
this country securing China's consent to this 
total exclusion, with certain exemptions. The 
duration of thait treaty was ten years, but in 1904, 
when it expired, no renewal wa<s made?. Thus the 
status of Chinese-American relations respecting 
immigration has automatically returned to the 
terms of the treaty of 1880. 

Meanwhile, in protest against the policy of this 
rigid exclusion and hatts'h treatment of Chinese 
immigrants of the merchant and student clashes 
and of those already in this country, a, boycott 
of American goods irj China took place. 

The plea of American business men in China 
awakened the American public to the seriousness 



of the situation. Many organizations in America, 
among which the American Asiatic Association 
was most prominent, appealed to the 'government 
for a more moderate policy. Public opinion in 
the Bast was quite indignant over the insatiable 
demands of the labor elements in the West. In a 
speech at Miami University on June 15, 1905, Hon. 
William H. Taft, then Secretary of War, said: 
"Is it just that for the purpose iof excluding or 
preventing perhaps one hundred Chinese from 
slipping into this country against the law, we 
should subject an -equal number of Chinese mer- 
chants and students of high character to an ex- 
amination of such an inquisitorial, humiliating, 
insulting and physically uncomfortable character 
as to discourage 'altogether the coming of mer- 
chants and students? . . . We must continue to 
keep out the coolies, the laborers, but we should 
give the freest possible entry to merchants, trav- 
elers and studenfe and treat them all with courtesy 
and consideration." 

A milder administration of these exclusion laws 
followed, and together with the return of the 
Boxer indemnity to China by the United States, 
good will of the Chinese people towards America 
seemed to be restored. Yet China, having con- 



sented to the suspension of Chinese labor immi- 
gration into this country, asked only fair treat- 
ment for her merchants, students and others who 
were entitled under the treaty to come here. 

There was a reduction of another 10,000 in the 
Chinese population in this country between 1910 
and 1920, when the census reports showed only 
61,639 Chinese in the United States. In the forty 
years of exclusion, the decrease in Chinese popula- 
tion reached a total of 44,000 or 40 per cent of 
the population in 1880. Therefore, the Chinese 
population in this country at present is even less 
than fifty years ago. (63,199 in 1870.) 

The tendency is still towards a steady decrease. 
The number of Chinese leaving- this country every 
year will continue to be greater than the arrivals. 
With the present exclusion laws in effect, the 
number of Chinese immigrants of the merchant, 
student and other classes who are not supposed 
to be excluded, will not increase as Chinese citizens 
of high standing d'o not care to risk themselves 
here under these law;s or to be treated in any way 
that might reflect upon their dignity. 

Indeed, these exclusion laws have brought a 
remarkably satisfactory result to those labor ele- 



ments that sought the exclusion of Chinese, 
though they have caused great embarrassment 
to both the American and Ohdnese governments, 
created serious misunderstandings between the 
two peoples, and have done much injustice to the 
Chinese of all classes. 



Distribution and Composition of Population 

As the Chinese were brought (to this country 
to develop the West, the Pacific coast has been 
naturally the center of the Ohiniese population. 
Even today more than 55 per cent of the total 
Chinese population- in (this country are on the 
Pacific coast. Of the 61,639 Chinese in the United 
States in 1920, 34,265 resided on the Pacific coast. 

During- the last forty years the Chinese popula- 
tion cmi the Coast -decreased 53,000 or 60 per cent. 
In other words, the present population there rep- 
resents only 40 per cent of that of forty years ago, 
as the following table will show: 

Year. On Pacific Coast, In Whole U.S. 
1880 87,828 105,465 

1890 85,272 107,488 

1900 59,779 89,863 

1910 46,320 71,531 

1920 34,265 61,639 

Of all the Pacific States California takeis 80 
per cent of the Chinese population, numbering 
28,812, -according to (the 1920 census. For the 
ten years 'ending 1919, according to the report of 
the California State Board of Control, the number 
of Chinese departures was about the same as that 



of arrivals, but the number of Chinese deaths 
exceeded births by 3,000 and therefore the total 
population in that state decreased by that number. 

It is interesting to note the contrast in the case 
of Japanese population there, which has more ttihan 
doubled itself in the same period. The report of 
the California State Board has made the following 

Chinese. Japanese. 
Population on April 15, 

1910 36,248 41,356 

Immigrants to Dec. 31, 

1919 11,914 32,196 

Total 48,162 73,552 

Emigrants to Dec. 31, 
1919 11,125 7,110 

Balance 37,037 66,442 

Immigrants from Ha- 
waii 108 506 

Births 3,741 27,828 

Total 40,886 94,776 

Deaths 7,615 7,497 

Population on Dec. 31, 
1919 33,271 87,279 

The next .section of importance with respect to 
Chinese population is the Middle Atlantic coast, 
where 8,812 Chinese resided in 1920, In the East 



North Central States, the Chin'es'e population has 
also gained during the last forty years, now num- 
bering 5,043. The rest of the Chinese population 
is- scattered over other parts of the country repre- 
senting only 20 per cent of the total population, 
as the following table will show: 

The Whole U. S. 61,639 100 % 

Pacific States 34,265 55.5 

Middle Atlantic 8,812 14.2 

East North Central 5,043 8.2 

Mountain 4,339 7.0 

New England 3,602 5.9 

South Atlantic 1,824 2.9 

West North Central 1,678 2.7 

West South Central 1,534 2.5 

East South Central 542 .8 

The states having a Chinese population of more 
than 1,000 are as follows : 

California 28,812 

New York 5,793 

Oregon 3,090 

Dliniois 2,776 

Massachusetts 2,544 

Washington 2,363 

Pennsylvania 1,829 

Arizona 1,137 

New Jersey 1,190 

The Chinese reside mostly ini rtftie cities. In 
almost every city that has a large population, 
there are found a number of Chinese. The fol- 



lowing table gives an idea of how the Chinese 
population is distributed in various citieis im this 


Berkeley 337 

Fresno 617 

Los Angeles 2,062 

Oakland 3,821 

Sacramento 831 

San Diego 254 

San Francisco 7,744 

San Jose 341 

Stockton 1,071 

Illinois : 

Chicago 2,353: 

Louisiana : 
New Orleans 246 

Maryland : 

Baltimore 328 

Massachusetts : 

Boston 1,075 


Detroit 438 

Missouri : 
St. Louis 328 

New Jersey: 

Newark 281 

New York: 
New York 5,042 

Cleveland 275 

Portland 1,846 



Pennsylvania : 

Philadelphia 869 

Pittsburgh 306 

Seattle 1,351 

Washington, D. C 461 

Of the forty-two races and nationalities in this 
country the Chinese population is (twenty-eighth. 
It is- only 56 per cent as great as the Japanese 
population; but if it is compared with some of the 
largest foreign populations here the Chinese rep- 
resent a ratio as small as 4 or 5 per cent Accord- 
ing to the 1920 Census, the foreign populations in 
this country were as follows : 

Race or Nationality. Population. 

1. German 1,686,102 

2. Italian 1,610,109 

3. Russian 1,400,489 

4. Polish 1,139,978 

5. Canadian 1,117,878 

6. Irish 1,037,233 

7. English 812,828 

8. Swedish 625,580 

9. Austrian 575,625 

10. Mexican 478,383 

11. Hungarian 397,282 

12. Norwegian 363,862 

13. Czechoslav 362,436 

14 Scotch 254,567 

15. Danish 189,154 



16. Greek 175,972 

17. Jugo-Slav 169,437 

18. Finnish 149,824 

19. Lithuanian 135,068 

20. Dutch 131,766 

21. Swiss 118,659 

22. French 118,569 

23. Japanese 110,010 

24. Rumanian 102,823 

25. Portuguese 67,453 

26. Welsh 67,066 

27. Belgian 62,686 

28. Chinese 61,639 

29. Syrian 51,900 

30. Spanish 49,247 

31. Atlantic Islanders . . . 38,984 

32. Armenian 36,626 

33. Alsace-Lorraine 34,321 

34. West Indian 26,369 

35. Cen. and So. American 20,929 

36. Turkish 13,894 

37. Newfoundlander 13,242 

38. Luxemburger 12,585 

39. Australian 10,801 

40. Bulgarian 10,477 

41. Albanian 5,608 

42. Palestinian 3,202 

In the Chinese population here are included 

18,532 native-born Chinese, who are, in fact, 
American citizens. This number represents more 
than 40 per cent of the total Chinese population, a 
gain of 15 per cent for the last decade and 30 per 
cent for two decades. 



Year. Native Born. Foreign Born. 
1920 18,532 43,107 

1910 14,935 56,596 

1900 9,010 80,853 

From the above statistics, we find that the 
Chinese birth rate in this country has b^en at 
about 4,000 per ten years. The increase in the 
percentage of the native born has been, therefore, 
due to the large and -steady decrease in the for- 
eign-born population, which decrease was about 
37,000 or 45 per cent in the last twenty years. 

Of the wlhole population the number of females 
is only 7,748, which is less than 8 per cent, al- 
though the percentage! ten years ago was still 
smaller. This is due to the difficulties which con- 
front the Chinese already here in bringing their 
families ito this country. 

The Chinese population in this counltry may 
be divided by age clearly into three divisions. 
The number of those under 30 equals those be- 
tween 30 and 50, and also those over 50, each 
occupying a third, or about 20,000, as the follow- 
ing table will show: 

Age. Number. 

Under 10 years 5,409 

10 to 19 years 4,765 

20 to 29 years 10,124 



30 to 39 years 10,001 

40 to 49 years 10,872 

50 to 59 years 11,639 

60 to 69 years 6,807 

70 to 79 years 1,572 

80 to 89 years 171 

90 to 99 years 15 

100 atid over 4 

Unknown 260 



Living Conditions 

The Ghinese in this country, like other foreign 
nationals, mostly live together. In every city, 
large or small, if there is a Chinese population, 
there can be found a Chinese colony, commonly 
called "Chinatown/* The reason for their liv- 
ing together is primarily to make themselves 
feel at home and partly to be able to help one 
another better. 

In this connection it must be understood that 
when these colonies were first established, the 
residents were mostly of laboring class whose 
living conditions naturally did not come up to 
the standards of other classes. The Chinese 
were therefore largely unwelcomed and had to 
go to the localities where similar classes of other 
peoples were found. This fact caused condi- 
tions in these colonies to become steadily worse; 
and, as the years went by, the landlords took 
advantage of their good-nature and they had 
to be content with tflieir dwellings and their wear 
and tear. 

If there were no prejudice against them, they 
would long ago have moved out of their old 



colonies. In view of the general attitude in this 
country towards them, they considered them- 
selves fortunate if they were able to have their 
residence here at all. They could hardly think 
of having the privilege of living among the 
American people, no matter what classs they 
themselves might belong to. 

The coming of the better classes and the going 
of the laboring class has, however, improved the 
general attitude of the American public towards 
the Chinese. Their efforts to live among the 
American people have not altogether failed, 
though some parts of the country are still preju- 
diced against them. 

At the same time those who cannot move out 
of their colonies for business reasons have con- 
stantly been making efforts to improve their 
conditions of living. Many of the native born 
Chinese have bought their properties and built 
new houses for the old ones. Large stores and 
restaurants have been opened. Modern improve- 
ments have been introduced in their colonies. 
The efforts of modernizing and improving their 
conditions of living are in evidence wherever 
there is a "Chinatown." 















It is well known that the "Chinatowns" of San 
Francisco and New York are the largest of all 
Chinese colonies in this country. For this rea- 
son it may be interesting for us to inquire into 
the conditions of these two "Chinatowns/' 

The old "Chinatown" of San Francisco has 
long been a favorite subject for fiction writers in 
this country because there they have been able 
to employ the best of their talent to exercise 
their mysterious "oriental" imaginations. Con- 
ditions there, as a matter of fact, left much to 
be desired, owing to the fact that the colony 
was overcrowded by the people of the laboring 
class, who, like other foreigners of their class, 
knew little of sanitation and cared still less. 
The population then was many times as large as 
it is now, living in an area much smaller than 
the present "Chinatown." The result was that 
it was beyond human power to remedy these con- 
ditions. It is wondered if it would (have been 
possible for any people to overcome the situation 
under the same circumstances. 

In spite of these conditions, the low mortality 
and the absence of epidemic diseases among the 
Chinese population there were quite noticeable. 
Even in the horrifying report of the Board of 



Supervisors of 1885, the absence of filth diseases 
was wondered at, but that was attributed to 
opium smoking. The San Francisco News Let- 
ter remarked that it was a wonder that gambling 
was not lauded as a means of warding off dis- 
eases and added: 

"But if the health of the Chinese does, in- 
deed, compare in any respect whatever 
more than favorably with that of other cit- 
izens it is clearly because the sanitary con- 
ditions of the city is worse than that of 

Chinatown Nor do the personal 

habits of the Chinese favor the production 
of filth diseases. The reporters only show 
their ignorance in stating that the Chinese 
are badly fed and clothed. They live ab- 
stemiously for their work is not laborious 
and they are cleanly in their person. It may 
be doubted if the opium habit is more de- 
structive than the alcohol abuses." 

The fire of 1906 burned down this old and no- 
torious "Chinatown" and the entire district has 
been rebuilt. Streets have been widened, and 
large and tall buildings erected. There one may 
find the work of the Chinese settlers, who have 
been given an opportunity of conducting and 
managing local affairs. There the advancement 
of the younger and more educated generation 
may be seen. 



It may be a matter of regret to ttie fiction 
writers that this great change in "Chinatown" 
has taken place. But to those who are interested 
in the social welfare of the people, it has some 
significances. The absence of fascination of the 
old "Chinatown," according to Charles F. Saun- 
ders, in his "Finding the Worth While in Cali- 
fornia," "is due to the relative newness, but 
more I think to the change that the revolution 
has brought over the aspect of the Chinese peo- 
ple themselves the operation of this spirit of 
New China which wills not of queues and is 
prone to invest itself in American clothes." 

In view of the newness of the present "China- 
town" of San Francisco, the "Chinatown" of 
New York is the oldest and the largest next 
to San Francisco, of all Chinese colonies in 
this country. 

When New York was young, the East Side 
was indeed one of the finest residential sections 
of the city. After the Civil War, rapid expan- 
sion in the city took place from decade to decade, 
industries grew tremendously, residential sec- 
tions extended farther and farther uptown, new 
and lofty buildings were built in sections where 
not long before there were only country sites; 



but unfortunately the East Side remained the 
same, though here and there a few new build- 
ings may be found. 

The backwardness of the East Side is usually 
attributed to its residents, most of whom are 
immigrants, who have come from the poorer 
and less educated classes in foreign countries. 
But is it really the fault of these residents that 
it is backward? They are only tenants. Is a 
tenant expected to keep the house foe rents for 
residence or business in repair? Is he responsi- 
ble for how it was built and how it is kept? It 
is generally known that public sanitation on the 
East Side is not well attended to, streets are 
narrow and unclean. Are the tenants there re- 
sponsible for these conditions too? 

"Chinatown," situated on the East Side, close 
to the Italian, Jewish and other foreign colonies, 
has never been under the influence of a good 
example in regard to the improvement of living 
conditions. In fact, attempts to improve these 
conditions by the Chinese residents themselves 
have often been handicapped owing to the diffi- 
culties arising out of the general conditions of 
that locality. Therefore, "Chinatown," as well 
as its neighbors, suffers many undesirable, inev- 



liable effects of congestion and limitation, which 
are not necessarily caused by the particular in- 

In spite of the difficulties that confront them 
in the development of fheir colony, the Chinese 
there have during recent years made a number 
of notable improvements in their community. 
Stores have been expanded and modern business 
devices installed. Many large restaurants of 
Broadway fashion have been opened. The most 
notable of all the improvements so far ac- 
complished in "Chinatown" is the erection of a 
new club house by the On Leong Merchants' As- 
sociation at 41 Mott Street, the center of "China- 
town." It is a modern fire-proof apartment 
house, the only one in its vicinity, built upon the 
ground upon which only a few years ago stood 
a small old-fashioned and shabby house. This 
red brick building is five stories high, the first 
two stories are occupied by a restaurant, and 
on both the third and fourth floors are four 
apartments, each consisting of four rooms and 
bath, all completely modern; the top floor is 
the meeting hall of the Association, above 
which is a red tiled roof with a Chinese-fash- 
ioned pavilion on the center. Indeed it is one 



of the greatest achievements of its kind in the 
whole East Side. 

It is hoped that the fiction writers and film 
producers will utilize these facts in depicting 
"Chinatown" and that sightseers will take spe- 
cial notice of these things to compare with what 
is usually told to them on their curious trips. 

The Chinese population outside "Chinatowns" 
has been greatly increased in recent years. More 
Chinese stores and restaurants have been opened 
outside the colony. Merchants who are not sat- 
isfied with conditions in "Chinatowns" have 
moved away and opened their offices among 
American business men. Moreover, since the 
world war there have come a large number of 
Chinese merchants of the more prominent and 
influential class from all parts of China. More 
Chinese students have come to study in Ameri- 
can colleges and universities. Indeed the more 
educated and better assimilable Chinese can 
be found everywhere more readily than a de- 
cade or two ago. 

The life of the Chinese merchants of the mod- 
ern type is no different from that of the Ameri- 
cans of the same station. Their methods of 
conducting business and ways of living are 



identical to those of the American people. In- 
deed they do not work any more or indulge in 
recreation any less than others. Many Chinese 
business men have their own houses in the 
suburbs, coming into town in their own automo- 
biles. Others live in exclusive apartments in 
expensive residential districts. Offices of the 
Chinese firms are found in the most important 
business sections, such as Wall Street, Fifth 
Avenue, and Broadway. 

The Chinese students' life here is, of course, 
like that of the American students. Except 
those living in the dormitories of their respective 
colleges, they establish their lodgings and some- 
times board with American families. Their 
adaptability and behavior are such that they 
are often preferred by these families. And 
often they begin as tenants and end as good 

The only Chinese residents outside "China- 
towns" who have not progressed in their living 
conditions are perhaps Uhe laundrymen. They 
still keep to the old type, though many have im- 
proved their establishments and use modern 
machines. As a whole they lack adaptability 
owing largely to the fact that their opportunity 
of learning and studying has long been lost. 



Morality and Behavior 

Since the establishment of Chinese colonies in 
this country, much 'has been written about them. 
The most misleading accounts are those stories 
of so-called "life in Chinatown," which usually 
describe Tong wars, opium dens, gambling 
houses and other criminal and unlawful under- 

Let us understand the meaning of the word 
"life" so that we may understand the real 
"Chinatown/' and the Chinese people here. 
Does not the life of a people mean their morality, 
behavior, living conditions, occupations, busi- 
nesses and organizations taken as a whole? Can 
the criminal acts and unlawful doings of some 
bad characters, which the people themselves 
condemn, properly be said to represent the life 
of the people? 

While it is not denied that in the past Tong 
fights, opium smoking and gambling have been 
great evils in "Chinatowns," it certainly cannot 
be said that the majority of the people were in- 



"The distorted and vicious image thus pre- 
sented/' said Professor Coolidge after having 
given an account of San Francisco "Chinatown" 
as generally viewed, "was not at all the Chinese 
whom the banks, mercantile houses, express 
companies, insurance agents and business men 
knew ; nor the one familiar to missionaries and 
teachers; but he was convenient for the poli- 
ticians and agreeable to the sand-lot and there- 
fore he has become the traditional bogy for 
public use. It is essential to an estimate of the 
true value of the Chinese immigrant to know the 
decent Chinese as he has been living in China- 
town through these fifty years. While high- 
binders, opium fiends, gamblers, prostitutes and 
criminals the riff-raff of the people have 
been constantly in the public eye, the average, 
respectable, dignified, industrious, law-abiding 
and reticent Chinese have come and gone with- 
out being known or appreciated." * 

It may be noted that since they became use- 
less to the sand-lot politicians, the Chinese have 
become victims of fiction writers and film pro- 
ducers and exhibitors. Indeed they have been 

* (Chinese Immigration, Page 402. 


good capital for many people, who have made 
great profit out of them. 

This scandalous vilification cannot, however, 
change the fact that the Chinese are a peace- 
loving and law-abiding people. Except for a 
few who committed crimes of personal venge- 
ance or because of wicked character, (which is 
noft altogether unknown to other nationalities), 
the Chinese residents here have never failed to 
observe the laws and maintain order. 

During the fatal days of senseless Tong fights, 
the Chinese merchants, students, and other 
responsible citizens always resented seeing the 
good name of the real Chinese ruined, and hav- 
ing no other course to pursue, they organized 
committees for mediation and arbitration. Even 
when some of the wicked characters committed 
crimes in "Chinatowns/' those not involved were 
not molested. Still less were Americans and 
others molested in any way for any purpose* 

However, during the anti-Chinese movement 
in this country, riots and murders were commit- 
ted against the defenseless Chinese, who re- 
ceived little or no protection, and consequently 
many lost lives and property with their mur- 


derers unpunished. Even today, robberies and 
theft and sometimes murders, are committed 
against the Chinese in their laundries and res- 
taurants situated in quiet and unprotected lo- 
calities. Mischievous boys often take advantage 
of their good behavior and throw stones or snow 
balls at them. 

"As a body in this country/' said Rev. Loomis 
in an official report on Chinese Immigration dur- 
ing the anti-Chinese movement, "they (Chinese) 
are a quiet, inoffensive, docile people. There 
are none among them like the hoodlum element 
among our lawless boys and young men. There 
are none who compare to the low, profane, de- 
bauched, drunken crowds that infest portions 
of most American and European cities." 

"As for intemperance, with its loathsome ex- 
hibitions," says Hubert H. Bancroft in his "Why 
a World Center of Industry at San Francisco 
Bay?", "I have lived an eye-witness of their 
habits in California for over half a century, and 
I have never seen a Chinaman drunk on the 
street or in any way disorderly or standing at 
the bar of a drinking saloon, where hundreds 
of thousands of Americanized toilers congregate 
daily for intellectual improvement and generous 



living. I have never seen a Oliinaman begging 
anywhere or in any way, while one constantly 
encounters on the street lusty white men asking 
for money with which they buy food, thus in 
these and other ways falling below in manliness 
and decency the despised Asiatics of the cheaper 

Mr. Thomas J. Noonan, Superintendent of the 
Rescue Society, whicih has a branch in New 
York's "Chinatown," says: "For twenty years I 
have come in contact with the Chinese people 
and my dealings with them have always been 
most satisfactory. I have found them to be ab- 
solutely honest and law-abiding. I have never 
had one single unpleasant experience during 
all that time. Americans, as a whole, should 
know more than they do about the Chinese." 

As a rule, the Chinese always love their 
families and neighbors* The Chinese children 
respect their parents and the aged. While in 
the American cities we often hear of sons and 
daughters deserting and ill-treating their 
parents, we hear nothing of this sort among the 
Chinese children. We read in the daily news- 
papers much about the domestic troubles among 



the Christian families, but we find peace and 
contentment in the Chinese homes. 

Miss Margaret P. Rae, Principal of Public 
School No, 1, New York City, gives an interest- 
ing account of the 'home life and children in 
"Chinatown" as follows: 

"It was my privilege a few years ago to be- 
come intimately associated with the children 
in Chinatown. I visited the homes of the chil- 
dren, saw the mothers amid became familiar 
with home life. It was wonderful to meet the 
picturesque women in their dainty homes. 
The women are very shy, diffident, retiring 
and seldom leave their homes. They are most 
hospitable. Tea is served immediately upon 
entering the hiome and there is a decidedly 
frietodly atmosphere. The Young Women's 
Christian Association on Mott Street is doing 
a great deal to bring to the Chinese women 
a knowledge of the customs and ideals of 

"Ilhave become acquainted with the? Chinese 
children and find them the most delightful 
type of child that I ever met. The heritage 
of ages of culture has left its mark and we 
have today in our city children who are 
models of courtesy, gentlene?ss,honesty, clean- 
liness and industry. In their work at school, 
I foumd them very intelligent, securing high 
marks in various school subjects and usually 
standing at ithe head of the class/* 



"It is very unfortunate that the Chinese peo- 
ple are grossly misunderstood in this country," 
says Miss Mary E. Banta, Superintendent of the 
New York Society of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. "They are so misunderstood that those 
who do not know them are usually afraid to 
make their acquaintance. But in my sixteen 
years' relations with them, I find 1Jhem but a 
nice, kind and respectable people. Indeed, I 
know many others who were at first afraid to 
know them, but who regretted afterwards that 
they had done them gross injustice." Miss 
Banta continues: 

"It is of course hard to establish friendship 
with the Chinese women, most of whom do 
not understaiid the English language. But 
one must show her sincerity, that she is a 
friend and not a sight-seer or an explorer, 
before she will be welcome. Once friendship 
is established, she will be entrusted with con- 
fidence. The Chinese women are very grate- 
ful, kind and friendly dif they are rightly 
treated. The Chinese husband is kind and 
considerate! to his wife and in general the 
Chinese Siome life in Chinatown is just as 
'happy as ours. 

"The idea that the Chinese parents dislike 
daughters is utterly -untrue. I personally 
have seen many Chinese parents demonstrate 
their love for their daughters. They give 
their daughters nice clothes and education 



just as much as, if not more than, they give 
to their sons. 

"Among the East Side people, it is notice- 
able that children of foreign parents who do 
not understand English, act and feel as su- 
periors to their parents -when interpreting 
for them. This, however, does not exist 
among the Chinese children. It is perhaps 
due to their early trained reverence for 
parents. It, is indeed one of the excellent 
characteristics of the Chinese people." 

The moral standard of the Chinese people 
who live in the malodorous environment of 
Chinatown is equal to the highest of any in that 
vicinity, according to Dr. John R. Henry, super- 
intendent of the Church of All Nations in New 
York, "This is remarkable because it is so near 
Chatham Square where all sorts of undesirable 
American elements center," he says and con- 
tinues : 

"The younger Chinese are especially pro- 
gressive. I have attended their dinners many 
times. They dress well, speak good English, 
and have the best speakers obtainable at their 
celebrations. In fact, it would be easy to 
imagine oneself at a college banquet instead 
of one conducted by immigrant boys of high- 
school age. 

"I have known the Chimes'e people for thirty 
years and my relations with them have been 
most cordial. There are three good qualities 
I find m them as a whole: First, respectful- 


The Clubhouse of the On Leong Merchants' Association 
in New York 


ness. They are invariably respectful to others, 
and this is true generally whether they like 
one or not. They may not be Christians but 
they respect those who are. They are not 
prejudiced in religious matters although they 
have been given little opportunity to know 
our religion, our better society, and our aspi- 
rations. Therefore, the Chinese in turn; should 
be respected. Second, gratefulness. They are 
a very grateful people. If one has the good 
fortune to do them a favor, they try to d<o 
twice! as much for him in return. I have had 
considerable personal experience with them 
in this respect. Third, politeness. All Chinese 
seem to be polite, whether they be scholars or 
workmen, they give due courtesy to others 
and unlike? many of our business men who are 
too busy to be polite, courtesy seems to be 
one! of their, national itraits. 

"I trace these three qualities of respectful- 
ness, gratitude and courtesy back to their 
home training. Every Chinese is influenced 
by this age-old training of the? Chinese home, 
be he humble or rich, and that is why these 
vintues seem so natural to them/' 




"The Chinese would appreciate America much 
more if they were not surrounded by drab envi- 
ronments in our big 1 cities. It is the duty of 
Americans to put into the Chinese quarters, as 
well as into other foreign settlements, healthful 
Americam institutes and influences in order that 
the Chinese may become acquainted with the 
higher moral and intellectual standards of the 
American people." 

The above statement is made by Dr. John R. 
Henry of the Church of All Nations in New York 
City. It is gratifying to find a fair-minded Ameri- 
can Who is willing to share the responsibility in 
the Americanization of aliens in this country. The 
general public is too critical. They criticise those 
who do not come up to the American standard, 
but do not question Whether these poor foreigners 
are given ami opportunity to be assimilated. 

If a foreigner is discriminated against, if he is 
not equally treated wherever he goes, if he is 
looked upon with contempt and scorn, if he is 
regarded as undesirable and unworthy, and even 
if 'he is looked upon with indifference, is foe en- 



itirely to blame for failure fan assimilation? When 
the anti-Ohinese agitation was prevalent in this 
country, the Chinese could not freely make their 
residence where they pleased and they had to live 
together in their own colonies. Even today some 
parts of the country are still prejudiced against 
them and unwilling to receive them. Are they to 
blame for not being more assimilated than is 
expected of them? 

"In proof of non-assimilation/' said Professor 
Ooolidge, "it has sometimes been asserted that 
the Chinese in this country are pagans and will 
always remain so \ but the Protestant clergy who 
have attempted to convert them to Christianity 
reply ttut their work has been hindered by un- 
Ghristiaii treatment to which the Chinese have 
been subjected/' Rev. Henry Ward Beecher once 
said: '"We have clubbed them (the Chinese), 
stonied them, burned their houses and murdered 
some of them; yet they refuse to be converted. 
I do not know any way, except to blow them up 
With flitro-glycerine, if we are ever to get them 
to Heaven." 

The Living Church recently printed a letter 
written by a Chinese student in this country to a 
friend in China, which contains the following: 



"The people here as a Whole have a strong 
sentimenit agafest Chinese, SK> it is rather hard for 
a young 'Chink' to make acquaintances in refined 
society. ... I don't feel at home at all. The 
hearty welcome I get from church people makes 
me feel the more that I am among strangers ; they 
greet me so much more warmly than they greet 
each other, it makes me feel that I am different. 
I have written the following prayer for myself: 

"'Almighty God, our Heavenly Father, Thou 
hast made the earth and the people thereon., white, 
yellow, red or black, at Thy will and they are all 
good in Thy sight. I beseech Thee to comfort 
me when I feel like a stranger here; help me to 
endure persecution and scorn; give me wisdom 
that I may understand that peoples of whatever 
complexion are all Thy children and Thou art 
their Father and Creator/ " 

The principal hindrance -to the conversion of 
the Chinese, remarked Professor Coolidge, prob- 
ably lies in the fact that the majority of Chinese 
in ithi's country are adult men. Even among 
Americans the number of adult mem who join the 
Protestant Churches at maturity is very small, 
and it is not surprising that only a relatively small 
number of Chinese have become Christians. But 



the activities iof both the Chinese and American 
missionary workers during recent years have 
proven to be successful. ' More missions of dif- 
ferent denominations have beetn established in the 
Chinese colonies of large and -small cities through- 
out the country. Sunday schools and Young Men's 
and Women's Christian Assiociations have been 
organized by the Chinese Christians. A Chinese 
Chrisitian Association of North America has been 
carrying on constructive work among the Chinese 

It has, however, often been asserted that the 
Chinese pagans are opposed to Christianity. 
That this is absolutely untrue is proven by the 
fact that the Chinese in New York a few years 
ago elected a Chinese Christian, a minister of 
the Baptist Church, as President of the Chinese 
Consolidated Benevolent Association, (who is 
commonly called the "Mayor" of "Chinatown") , 
and kept him in the office for two terms, or four 
years. The Christians may be prejudiced 
against the Chinese pagans, but seldom are 
Chinese pagans prejudiced against the Chris- 
tians. H. G. Wells says the Chinese teachings are 
jju-st like the Athenian philosophy. "Socrates was 
quite willing to bow politely or sacrifice formally 



to almost any divinity, reserving his private 

The reason usually advanced for the Chinese 
being unassimilable is that they are a selfish 
people and that during their stay in this coun- 
try they take no interjest in the "welfare of 
America, and therefore do not care for anything 
American. If they were really such, it would 
not be unnatural in view of the discrimination 
against them and the rights and privileges given 
to other races and nationals in this country. The 
fact is, however, just the contrary. Their loy- 
alty to this country is no less than any other 
foreign born or native born foreign peoples. 
They have never been left behind when oppor- 
tunities come for them to serve the country, even 
though they may not be called upon. 

During the world war many Chinese citizens 
enlisted in the U. S* Army and Navy. Some of 
the veterans of the Chinese Revolution who were 
in this country offered to organize a Chinese di- 
vision for the U. S. Army. The Chinese in dif- 
ferent cities throughout 1ihe country gave their 
assistance to the war work campaigns and 
amply demonstrated their patriotism and loy- 
alty. In New York the most notable patriotic 


demonstration was the parade consisting of sev- 
eral hundred Chinese merchants, students, boy 
and girl scouts and others marching from 
"Chinatown" to the Altar of Liberty at Madison 
Square and thence to the "China Block" on Fifth 
Avenue at 52nd Street on China Day of the 
Fourth Liberty Loan campaign, which aroused 
the patriotism of many a citizen and which sur- 
passed the activities of many other aliens in New 
York. Their willing subscription and the per- 
suasion of their countrymen to subscribe to the 
Liberty loans and other war works may be in- 
terpreted as an expression of their gratitude and 
loyalty to America. 

"During the period of the recent War when 
opportunities for self-sacrifice were so numer- 
ous," says Dr. Joseph D. Reardon, Principal of 
Public School No. 23 in New York, "the Chinese 
were unexcelled in loyalty, patriotism and de- 
votion to duty. They have given abundant 
evidence of possessing all of the essential at- 
tributes of good citizenship and any failure to 
accord them just appreciation in this regard can 
only be attributed to the ignorance and preju- 
dice of those unacquainted with them." 
The decrease in the number of laboring people 


and the corresponding increase in the merchant 
and student classes among the Chinese in this 
country during the last decade or two, together 
with the influence of the Chinese Kepublic, have 
indeed resulted in great improvements in con- 
ditions in the Chinese colonies and the modern- 
ization of the habits, manners and ideas of the 
people. Those who lost the opportunity of 
learning the English language have been study- 
ing it in their spare time. Their sons and daugh- 
ters have been attending schools, colleges and 
universities, bringing home American culture to 
modernize their parents and relatives. In short, 
they have been working hard to improve their 
conditions, develop their communities and ad- 
vance Americanism. These works are evident 
and can be seen by any one who wishes to see 

Their apparent fault is that in the days of the 
most extensive self-advertising, they still adhere 
to their old teaching of modesty and care little 
to tell others their own virtues and good points 
lest they be not respected. At the same time 
they do not know how to cover their shortcom- 
ings, as others do. For these reasons they are 



least understood and therefore subjected to 
ridicule and humiliation. 

If a better assimilation of the Chinese in the 
United States is desired, it is outside moral sup- 
port, not irresponsible criticism, that is needed* 



According to the 1920 Census, the 
tions held by the Chinese in this country were 
as follows: 

1. Gainful Occupations 

Agriculture, forestry and animal 

husbandry 5,049 

Dairy farmers, farmers, stock 

raisers, foremen and laborers 2,818 
Gardeners, florists, nurserymen, 

and laborers 2,086 

All others 145 

Extraction of minerals 150 

Manufacturing and mechanical in- 
dustries 4,256, 

Food industries 1,968 

Building industries 942 

All others 1,346 

Transportation 790 

Trade 7,477 

Retail dealers 4,313 

Salesmen and saleswomen 1,658 

Clerks in stores 825 

Wholesale dealers, importers 

and exporters 142 

Proprietors, officials and man^ 

agers 29 

Bankers, brokers and money 

lenders 26 

All others 484 

Public service 186 



Professional service 462 

Domestic and personal service . . 26,450 

Laundry operators 11,577 

Laundry owners 982 

Restaurant keepers 1,685 

Servants 8,417 

Waiters 2,810 

All others 979 

Clerical occupations 794 

All gainful occupations . . , 45,614 

In explaining some of the figures, the Census 
states that some of the owners of hand laundries 
have been included in the laundry operators, 
that many clerks in stores were probably sales- 
men, and that some of the retail dealers were 
probably managers and superintendents of re- 
tail stores. It may also be noted that many 
cooks and waiters in Chinese restaurants have 
shares in the stock of their respective restau- 
rants and clerks and salesmen of retail stores are 
mostly members of their respective firms. 

As to the present conditions of the important 
enterprises undertaken by the Chinese in vari- 
ous lines, I shall devote the next chapter, giving 
a detailed discussion. 

2. Students 

There are in this country a number of 
Chinese students pursuing their regular studies 



in schools, colleges and universities. The 1920 
Census gives the following figures of the school 
attendance of the Chinese in the United States : 

Male Female 

Under 7 years of age 301 254 

7 to 13 years 1,502 1,107 

14 to 20 years. 1,439 527 

21 years of age and over 803 148 

Total 4,045 2,036 

In the public and high schools the children of 
Chinese residents here have been doing well. 
Their excellent behavior is generally recognized 
as their chief point of individuality, and their 
ability to pursue the courses is also acknowl- 
edged. "I cannot praise too highly t&e virtues 
of the Chinese children," says Dr. Joseph D. 
Reardon, Principal of Public School No. 23 of 
New York City, which is attended by several 
hundred Chinese-American children and some 
mature Chinese, "They make ideal pupils whom 
it is a pleasure to teach. Their conduct is 
always exemplary. Their kindness, gentility, 
respectful attitude to school and teachers, at- 
tention to business, persistent application to 
study, eagerness and capacity for work, endear 
them to their teachers and make them pupils 
devoutly to be wished. I have never known a 



Chinese pupil to be a truant and during my nine- 
teen years here I have never received a com- 
plaint against one for disorder of any kind. It 
is a credit to Chinese civilization and education 
that the ethical training of the young is so pro- 
ductive of such noble traits of character." 

Indeed they often win prizes and medals in 
literary and other contests. Tlhere is Florence 
Low, a Chinese girl, who recently received a 
silver medal for the highest grade of her class 
at its graduation exercises in Public School 23 
of New York City, and who several months ago 
won a prize offered by the New York Evening 
Post for the best essay on American history. The 
most extraordinary of all is the work of Ah Sing 
Ching of Hawaii, a 14-year-old boy of Chinese 
extraction, who recently won the first prize in 
the American Legion's essay contest for all 
American school children between 12 and 18 
years of age. These show the standard of in-' 
telligence and the extent of Americanization 
among the Chinese-American children. 

In the American colleges and universities 
there are a large number of Chinese students of 
mature age who have come to pursue the most 
modern courses given there and to specialize in 



various studies, theoretical, practical, technical, 
industrial and commercial. Of these students 
several hundreds are sent here and supported by 
the Chinese Government. At present more than 
four hundred of them are supported by the 
American portion of the Boxer indemnity, which 
America has graciously returned to China. 

The presence of these students in this country 
has indeed contributed to a great extent toward 
the restoration of a favorable attitude of the 
American public towards the Chinese. As a 
whole, they have made a good impression here 
among the intellectual class of people and have 
succeeded in creating a better understanding of 
China and the Chinese for the Americans. 

Outside of their studies, the Chinese students 
attending colleges and universities here are 
always anxious to help their country. During 
the Peace and the Washington Conferences, they 
organized committees to assist the Chinese Dele- 
gations in presenting China's case to the Ameri- 
can public. Like other Chinese in this country, 
they are also active in other patriotic works 
whenever they are called. 

The result the Chinese students have obtained 
through their studies in American colleges and 



universities has proved to be a great factor in 
the modernization of China. As is well known 
here, many American-educated Chinese have 
become national and international figures, often 
controlling the fate of their country. According 
to "Who's Wiho of American Returned Stu- 
dents/* there were in 1919 about six hundred 
alumni of American institutions in actual em- 
ployment, classified as follows: 

Education : 

Administrators 38 

Teachers 197 

Government service : 
Executive officers (including diplo- 
matic and consular officers) .... 129 

Legislators 3 

Judicial officers : . . , 4 

Technical antt Professional work: 

Architects 4 

Engineers 95 

Legal practitioners 6 

Medical practitioners 35 

Miscellaneous vocations : 
Directors and employes in banks ... 22 
Managers and employes in manufac- 
turing and commercial houses . . 38 

Editors and correspondents 2 

Librarians 2 

Social aad religious workers 21 

Total 596 


The Chinese Parade During the Fourth Liberty Loan Cam- 
paign in 1918, on "China Block/' Fifth Ave. at 52d St. 

(Chinese Republican Flag Red, Yellow, Blue, White, and Black) 


Commercial and Industrial Enterprises 

"I am personally acquainted with the Chinese 
in this country, who would reflect credit upon 
any people"; says Rev. William N. Hubbell, 
Pastor of the Mariners' Temple in New York 
City, "men of probity, of honesty and of pur- 
pose ; merchants of trust ; young men of promise. 
These men reflect the better China, the progres- 
sive China. They are positive additions to the 
wealth of the United States. They have utilized 
the large opportunities America offers, and 
have become builders of our civilization." This 
statement may sound too strong to those who 
do not know the Chinese people. But let us 
inquire into the facts and let facts prove whetiher 
it is an exaggeration or the truth. Therefore, 
let us analyze and discuss the commercial and 
industrial enterprises undertaken by the 
Chinese in this country. 

General Importing and Exporting. Years ago 
Chinese merchants in this country knew only 
the importing business and imporetd only the| 
goods which were the necessaries of life for 
their countrymen here. Tihey did this in a small 



way with little thought of trade with Americans. 
The exporting business of this country with 
China was, therefoie, conducted by American, 
English, German, and Japanese merchants. 

The establishment of the Chinese Republic in 
1912, however, awakened the people to many 
new activities of great importance. Improve- 
ments in industries and commerce have been 
made in China, which tend to encourage further 
developments. Foreign trade, which was long 
neglected by the Chinese, has begun to interest 
the people. Merchants of the more prominent 
and influential circles have come to find markets 
in foreign countries for their goods, and to im- 
port foreign goods into China. These merchants 
are of the modern type and from all parts of 

During the last decade they have established 
new enterprises in the world commercial centers. 
Chinese trading companies of large capital, 
some of which are incorporated under the laws 
of different States, may be found in New York, 
Chicago, San Francisco and other cities. Chinese 
firms of high standing, having connections with 
large American concerns, enjoying high rating 
in Dun's and Bradstreet's, representing Ameri- 



can manufacturers in China, are numerous. 
Direct trade between America and China, which 
has been only a (half-fulfilled desire of both 
American and Chinese merchants, has begun to 
be realized by the presence in American cities 
of these Chinese firms. 

The goods imported and exported by these 
firms are generally as follows : 


Metals and ores: 

Chinese needle antimony, antimony ox- 
ide, tin>, tungsten, bismuth ores, man- 
ganese ores, asbestos. 

Hair, bristles and hair nets : 

Human and horse hair, wool, camels' hair 
and hair nets* 


Peanut, soya bean, China wood, pepper- 
mint, cassia* 

Egg Products: 

Egg albumen, yolk and powder. 

Silk goods and raw silks. 

Rugs and carpets. 

Chinaware and lacquerware. 


Camphor, gall nuts, seeds, straw braids, 
bides and skins, rubber, raw cotton and 
wool, tea, peanuts, beans, etc. 


Iron and steel products : 

Bars, wires, structural shapes, tin plate, 
sheets, pipes, tubes, nails, hardware and 



Construction materials: 

Cement, lumber, refractory bricks. 

Chemicals and oils : 

Dyestuffs, drugs, paints, gasoline and 
lubricating oils. 

Paper of all kinds. 

Machinery : 

Textile, mining, milling, drilling ma- 
chines and machine tools of all kinds. 

Power plant and electrical equipment: 
Boilers, engines, turbines, condensers, 
compressers, furnaces, super-heaters, 
feed water heaters, alternating and di- 
rect current generators, motors, switch- 
Railway equipment: ^ 
boards, etc. 
Locomotives, cars, rails. 

Automobiles and motorcycles: 

Passenger cars, trucks, motor buses, 
chassis, tires, batteries and all acces- 

Metal and metalwares : 

Copper, brass, lead, zinc, aluminum, 
nickel, cobalt, etc. 

During recent years some American business 
men, appreciating the value of Chinese eooper- 
atipn in trade with China, have either organized 
companies with the Chinese or taken them into 
partnership. Those who desire to expand their 
trade to China have sent them there to act as 
their agents or representatives, thus solving the 
problem of finding competent Americans who 



know Chinese trade methods, conditions and 
customs, and also the language. 

Banking It may be surprising to the general 
public that there is a Ohinese bank in this coun- 
try that has carried on a successful business for 
the last fifteen years. This bank was organized 
in 1907 as a California State Bank with an au- 
thorized capital of $300,000, which has since 
been increased to $1,000,000. The shares of 
this bank are owned exclusively by Chinese 
and there are at present about 500 stockholders, 
most of whom reside in America. The majority 
of the stock is held, of course, by Chinese who 
are American born citizens. Several years ago, 
a lot was acquired by the bank in San Francisco 
and a building constructed of steel and rein- 
forced concrete with an exterior finished in 
glazed tile, representing an investment of over 

The bank has grown consistently since its or- 
ganization and at present it has deposits of 
more than $4,000,000. The statement of condi- 
tion issued by the bank recently is as follows: 


Loans and discounts $2,303,226.08 

Bonds and U. S. Securities . . 950,785.88 



Bank Premises, Furniture and 

Fixtures 257,314.97 

Cash and Due from Banks . . 1,272,184.90 

Documentary Bills of Ex- 
change 211,120.37 


Capital paid in $ 600,000.00 

Surplus and Undivided profits 240,247.04 

Unearned Interest 6,539.71 

Dividends unpaid 6,359.00 

Deposits 4,141,486.45 


The Chinese bankers of the more modern 
type at home have also realized the importance 
of entering into relationship witih foreign coun- 
tries. The increase of China's trade with 
America, especially with New York, has required 
more banking facilities, and a year ago two 
Chinese banks opened offices in New York for 
the benefit of both Chinese and American busi- 
ness men. These banks render direct service 
through their head offices in China in connec- 
tion with trade between! China and this- country. 

Transportation Eight years ago a Chinese 
steamship company was organized by a group 
of Chinese in San Francisco and a trans-Pacific 
service was inaugurated! between China and 



America. It is the only privately-owned steam- 
ship line operating regularly in the trans-Pacific 
passenger and freight service without govern- 
mental subsidy or support. The company has 
three steamers, namely the "China/* the "Nan- 
king" and the "Nile/* The steamship "Ohina," 
in service since the fall of 1915, is a ship 440 
feet long, 48 feet wide, and nearly 38 feet deep, 
with a displacement of 10,200 tons, and a spa- 
cious promenade deck 220 feet long* In 1918 
the steamship "Nanking" was added, which is 
slightly larger than the "China," having a dis- 
placement of 15,000 tons. The service of steam- 
ship "Nile" was inaugurated in 1919. With 
these iftiree steamers running, the schedule of 
sailings from San Francisco has been made once 
every twenty days, plying between San Fran- 
cisco and Shanghai, calling at Honolulu, Yoko- 
hama, Nagasaki, Manila and Hong Kong. During 
1922 more than six .thousand passengers were 
carried on these steamers. 

A project has been made recently to establish 
a passenger and freight line between New York 
and China by way of Cuba, the Panama Canal, 
and Japau, which, it is hoped, will prove to be 
a success. 



Shipping As the Chino- American trade in- 
creases from year to year, more shipping facili- 
ties are demanded. The Chinese having seen 
this situation have also entered in the shipping 
business here. Both San Francisco and New 
York have Chinese shipping concerns, acting 
as the forwarding agents, custom and ship and 
insurance brokers, foreign freight contractors 
and traffic managers of both importers and ex- 

Specialties There are a number of articles, 
whose volume of business has been so large that 
specialized firms have been established to deal 
exclusively in their respective fields. The more 
important articles are: Antiques, jewelry, needle 
work, bamboo baskets, and medicines. 

Antiques, bamboo baskets, needle work and 
some of the Chinese jewels are imported for 
American consumption. Chinese medicines and 
books are entirely for the Chinese people here, 
though some people of other nationalities also 
believe in the Chinese herbs. 

Art Goods Stores. Chinese art goods have 
recently become so popular that stores carrying 
these goods Shave increased in number and ex- 



panded in size. In this line of business some of 
the Chinese artistic taste, refinement and skilled 
artisanship have found a way to be exhibited 
in this country. Chinese interior and exterior 
decorations, wood carvings, jade pieces, porce- 
lain articles, Chinawares, hand embroideries, and 
jewelries are all appreciated by the American 
people. It is indeed interesting to note how 
Chinese things are regarded among the artistic 
and fashionable circles in New York. "The 
vogue for things Chinese," says a report in a 
fashion magazine, "is manifesting itself in some 
of ladies' dresses. The treatment of the jackets, 
particularly in the cut of sleeves, is patently 
Chinese. The trimmings, which run strongly to 
such things as braiding and embroideries, carry 
out the Far Eastern Motif." 

Another report says: "The vogue of things 
Chinese spreading just as it did in Chippen- 
dale's day. Both the Chinese colorings and de- 
signs the famous 'Dragon of the Empire/ the 
pagodas, the tinkly temple bells, the strange, 
beautiful out-of-drawing trees and flowers and 
birds that never existed outside of a Chinese 
brain. Colorings that are glorious echoes of 
rare old Chinese pottery. Strange combinations 



of blue and lavenders, of black, overlaid with 
color after color," Indeed the influence of 
Chinese art, which has been developed during 
the four thousand years of the Chinese civiliza- 
tion, has manifested itself among the American 
people of the more intellectual, more highly cul- 
tured, and the more refined classes. 

Sundry Goods Stores Most of the Chinese 
stores carrying sundry goods are found in 
"Chinatowns." These stores, owing to the lim- 
ited space at their disposal, may look small and 
crowded. But this is not a basis to estimate the 
volume of their business. Indeed they do much 
more business in these stores than can be esti- 
mated by an outsider. Some of them have been 
trading with South American countries; some 
have connections with large American firms in 
this country; and others are commissioned by 
American steamship, insurance, phonograph 
companies as their agents for Chinese business. 
Many of these stores have their own trucks to 
make deliveries in the city. 

The goods they carry vary in large number; 
thus they are called sundry. The most important 
of them are : 

Chinese canned goods 
Chinese vegetables 





Soy sauce 




Chinese medicines 


Chinese silks 

Although these stores are mostly patronized 
by the Chinese residents here, some of their 
goods are beginning to interest the Americans. 
Among the Chinese foodstuffs, Chinese canned 
goods and vegetables begin to find way to the 
American consumers. Soy sauce and Chinese 
candies and teas are extensively used by Ameri- 
can visitors of the Chinese restaurants. Chinese 
silks and Chinawares are also sold to the Ameri- 
cans in large quantities. Therefore the prospect 
of their business expansion can be foreseen and 

Restaurants. The Chinese restaurant came 
into existence in America because of Chop Suey, 
which, as is well known, is a name given to a 
certain Chinese dish, which is not at all of 
Chinese origin, by Li Hung Chang when he was 
invited by some Chinese merchants here to a 
Chinese dinner which they did their best to pre- 



pare at a time when Chinese foodstuffs were not 
easy to obtain. As the Chop Suey dish suits the 
taste of the American people, serving it has be- 
come a public service and its business thereby 

But Chop Suey by no means represents the real 
Chinese cuisine. The Chinese themselves never 
take it because they do not like it. Indeed those 
in "Chinatowns" and elsewhere have much bet- 
ter food than that They prepare their food in 
various ways the real Chinese way which is 
much more complicated and requires much 
more material than Chop Suey./fl'o give some 
idea of wfaat the Chinese themselves take as 
food, I quote below a paragraph from an article 
written by an American, who evidently discov- 
ered something new. 

"Let an American get far enough around 
on the good side of a Chinese cook to break 
through his stolid Far East silence and win 
an invitation to dine early some morning 
with the restaurant cashier, waiter, and 
cook, and he will learn that the Chinese 
make Chop Suey to sell and not to eat. If 
he has bad the forethought to acquire some 
little facility in the use of chopsticks and to 
suck his scalding hot tea, the guest will find 
himself the center of a jolly party of epi- 
cures* He is likely to discover before him 



a large dish of sin kwa, a slightly bitter 
vegetable, and lun gar pak, boiled together, 
with a generous quantity of the thin soup at 
the bottom of the bowl. If the season is 
right, there may be some pak choi, Chinese 
mustard gathered just when the yellow 
flowers are at full bloom, edible podded 
peas or string beans, fried quickly in peanut 
oil, then -stewed a few minutes in chicken 
broth. With a dish of shrimps, flavored as 
only a Chinese knows how to navor them, 
and a dessert of candied cumquats or 
Chinese watermelon in syrup, the guest will 
surely depart hoping for another invita- 

The Chinese restaurant in this country, how- 
ever, stands out promiently among the largest 


American and other restaurants. Many of them 
take sites in the most popular districts, provid- 
ing orchestras and floor spaces for dancing. 
Some even provide shows (American perform- 
ers) to entertain their guests. They are now 
patronized by Americans of a high class, even 
by very conservative families, who formerly 
would not visit a Chinese restaurant under any 
circumstances. Their success in this business 
is due to fihe cleanliness with which they pre- 
pare their food and keep their kitchens and 
restaurants.-^heir kitchens are often visited 
by American ladies, whose verdict is usually 


that they are as clean as, if not cleaner than, 
American restaurants. The investigation made 
by "Martha" of the New York Daily News recently 
gives out more definite ideas of how these 
Chinese restaurants and their kitchens are kept. 
Her report, which was published by that widely 
circulated paper, says in part: 

"Of the restaurants so far investigated by 
Martha, the Chinese restaurants are by far 
the cleanest 

"The kitchens, without exception among 
those investigated, were found immaculate. 
The utensils were shining, the metal work 
shone and the tables were scrubbed. Even 
the scraps looked clean. 

"In all of those visited the food was clean 
and fresh. Sufficient use of soap and water 
was in evidence, and the food was properly 

"The first restaurant visited was that of 
Sey Jan, on Mott Street. 

"The kitchen was wide and airy. The 
large shallow pans on the stoves were scrub- 
bed to the shining point. 

"The tables were as clean as those in 
the kitchen of a fastidious housewife. China 
bowls containing scraps showed the trim- 
mings from fresh vegetables that might 
have come straight from the garden. 

"The dishes and implements, said by Ole 
Salthe, Director of foods and drugs of the 
Department of Health, (to be one of the most 



serious sources of danger in restaurant con- 
ditions, were carefully washed and stacked 
on clean shelves above the tables. 

" 'The Chinese have a mania for using a 
lot of water in their kitchens/ commented 
E. W. Hoctor, food inspector, who accom- 
panied Martha. 'They wash everything in 
all the water they can use. If you notice a 
Chinese restaurant kitchen hand fixing 
food, he invariably washes his hands after 
he has them on one kind of food before he 
touches another/ 

" 'In all the work that we have done in- 
specting restaurants we have never had any 
trouble with the Chinese places/ 

"The next place visited was a Chinese 
lunchroom the American lunchroom it is 
called also on Mott Street. 

"The same conditions of cleanliness pre- 
vailed there, although financially it is om a 
level with quick-lunch rooms whose tradi- 
tional lack of cleanliness is all too familiar to 
the American public. 

'The first thing that struck Martha's eyes 
was the table where the coffee urns stood. 
Sheets of copper covered the table under them 
and the whole array was polished until it 

"In the kitehen the refrigerators showed 
nothing but the freshest food. The pans and 
kettles were spotless and all the sanitary 
regulations were complied with." 

Hotels. In San Francisco there are five Chinese 
hotels, whicih are situated in the Chinese colony. 
These 'hotels are all of the modern type. Some 



of them have five-story buildings and a capacity 
of several hundreds of people. Their rooms are 
large, all installed with the up-to-date ventilation 
system. The furnishing and decoration of these 
rooms are all modern with the service entirely 
like the American hotels of thigh class. 

Publications. There are published in this coun- 
try five daily and three weekly newspapers in 
Chinese; three monthlies, two in English and one 
in Chinese; and one quarterly in English. The 
cities in which they are published are as follows : 

San Francisco . . . Dailies 4 

... Monthly 1 

Chicago Daily 1 

New York Weeklies 3 

" Monthlies 2 

Quarterly 1 

Farming. Chinese farmers 'are fouxid mostly in 
California, and some in the East and in Florida. 
According to the Annual Report of the State 
Board of Control of California for the year 1920, 
the area of the lands occupied by the Chinese 
farmers, as compared with that of the Japanese, 
is as follows : 

Land Chinese Japanese 

Owned by 12,076 74,769 

Leased by 65,181 383,287 

The Oldest Chinese Restaurant on Mott Street 

The Telephone Station in San Francisco 


The fanning corporations organized both by 
the Chinese and by the Japanese are: 

No. Capital Stock. 

Chinese 5 $1,170,000 

Japanese 302 9,171,500 

Those in the East and in Florida carry on a 
comparatively smaller kind of work, mostly indi- 
vidual undertakings. 

Noodle Manufacturing. Chinese noodles are 
used to prepare Chow Mein, another so-called 
Chinese dish, which ihas gained the favor of Amer- 
ican public. The noodle is manufactured with the 
newest processes and up-to-date machinery. The 
business has been so great that factories making - 
this product have been established in all large 
cities during recent years. 

Laundries. The Chinese laundry has been the 
most conspicuous Chinese enterprise to American 
eyes, because of the large number of establish- 
ments in this country. They by no means, how- 
ever, represent the commercial and industrial life 
of the Chinese. The mere fact of a large toumber 
of establishments does not mean a large volume 
of business. Indeed, the cost of a large restaurant 
may require that of twenty or thirty or even more 



laundries put together. The business of the 
Chinese laundries here becomes very small when 
it is compared with that of the Chinese trading 
compaoues and other commercial establishments. 

Other Industries. There are other industries 
undertaken by the Chinese in this country. Al- 
though they do not carry on their businesses to 
the same extent as the other Chinese industries 
mentioned above, there are quite a number of 
establishments in the following lines : 

Candy making, 
Cigar Making, 



Laundry machinery, 







Once an American friend asked me a very dif- 
ficult question. He said: "Why is it that among 
so many Chinese in this country there are no 
paupers, invalids, nor public charges; why are 
there hardly any Chinese who commit theft, rob- 
bery or 'hold-ups among their own people or 
against others; and why do they need no courts 
to settle disputes, domestic or commercial, arising 
among themselves ? They can not be all well-to-do 
or fortunate. They have exclusion and other laws 
working against them. Their chance for earning 
a livelihood is strictly limited. At any rate there 
must be some unfortunate and poor people among 
them. How are they protected from becoming 
public charges or committing crime? If their 
morality is sudh as to enable them to avert domefs- 
tic troubles, they certainly cannot avoid commer- 
cial disputes among themselves. How are these 
disputes settled?" I went in search of a satisfac- 
tory answer and did not find one until I inquired 
into the inside of their organizations. 

It is generally known that the Chinese nation 
is founded on the rock of self-government. It is 



a tradition of *he Chinese people to govern them- 
selves, no matter what station of life they may be 
in. The Chinese in this country faave a number 
of organizations for various purposes; they are 
small units. Their numerous colonies represent 
larger units and have central organizations to 
take care of all affairs of their respective communi- 
ties. These central organizations are of a social- 
istic nature. Their duty is not only to make rules 
and regulations to govern their respective dis- 
tricts 'but also to take care of all those who are in 
need. Their power extends not only to the en- 
forcement of their rules and regulations, but also 
to the arbitration, of any disputes which are 
brought before them. 

If a Chinese is in need, he naturally goes first 
to the society of the .same family name as his, 
such as, for example, the Lee's Society. If he 
cannot find one, he can go to the society of the 
district whence he has come. If he still finds none, 
he may resort to the consolidated or united be- 
nevolent association, the central organization, for 
assistance, unless he belongs to a protective so- 
ciety. Thus he can avoid becoming a public charge 
or a thief or a holdup man, unless he is inherently 
of bad character. 



Among the Chinese people domestic troubles are 
usually settled in the family by the elders or by the 
relatives assembled. Small commercial disputes are 
usually settled by the parties themselves, but in 
case they cannot agree, they appeal by mutual 
consent to the? consolidated association or their 
respective trade associations for arbitration, and 
thus save the parties from the expense and the 
disgrace of going to court. 

1. Benevolent 

Of all the benevolent organizations the Chung 
Wah Kung Sow, or the Chinese consolidated or 
united associations are supreme. In fact, they are 
above all other organizations, educational, relig- 
ious, trade, and political, as they are everybody's 
organizations. The functions of these associations 
as they have been practised during the last forty 
or fifty years, may be outlined as follows : 

1. Concerning the maintenance of order in 
their colonies If order in their colonies is likely 
to be disturbed, the associations take appropriate 
action to prevent it. If the trouble comes from 
within, it acts as mediator or arbitrator. 

2. Concerning the Rights of the Chinese Citi- 
zens. If the treaty rights of Chinese citizens are 



violated, the associations may make protest to the 
Chinese Minister and Consul for protection. 

3. Arbitrating Disputes Between Chinese Par- 
ties. The associations undertake to arbitrate 
commercial and private disputes between Chinese 
parties by calling a general meeting and listening 
to the general opinion. Their decisions, when ap- 
proved by a majority, are carried out as court 

4. Certifying Documents and Witnessing Deeds. 
The associations, when applied to, sanction all the 
deals between Chinese parties, such as the pur- 
chase and sale of a restaurant. They stand as 
witnesses in matters concerning their respective 
members, such as certifying papers and making 

5. Charitable Work. The associations do all 
sorts of charitable work, ranging from aiding old 
and destitute Chinese to return home and provid- 
ing cemetery grounds and vaults for the dead, to 
the raising of funds for relief in China. 

Some of these associations have been recently 
reorganized for the purpose of increasing their 
activities. The association in New York, for ex- 
ample, ihas proposed to undertake the following 
activities in addition to its ordinary work : 



1. Making Rules and Regulations for Business 
Transactions Among the Chinese. Transactions 
and agreements between Chinese parties, which 
require the sanction of the association, will be 
subject to the rules and regulation made by the 
association, which will be uniform in all cases of 
the same nature in order to establish equity and 

2. Developing Trade. The association will un- 
dertake to study trade conditions among the 
Chinese merchants and will present plans to the 
public for further development. It will -also make 
trade connections for Chinese merchants. 

3. Reporting Important News. The association 
will print from time to time reports regarding new 
laws and regulations concerning trade, communi- 
cations and transportation. 

4. Extending Education. The association will 
arrange to open more Sunday schools, reading 
rooms and to give lectures. 

5. Establishing a Public Club. The association 
will arrange to establish a public club for all the 
residents, -so as to afford everyone an opportunity 
to have better recreation and fuller understanding 
among themselves. 

As these associations are everybody's organiza- 



tions, their memberships are naturally larger than 
that of any other organizations. It is therefore 
impractical to 'hold a public vote for their officers 
and other means must 'be employed for self-gov- 

In San Francisco, the Chinese Consolidated Be- 
nevolent Association is composed of eight sub- 
sidiary associations, namely, the Ning Young, the 
Yan Wah, the Sam Yip, the Young Wah, the Shao 
Ching, the Kung Chow, the Hop Wah, and the 
En Kai, the last twq named having been admitted 
long after 'tihe establishment of the association. 
The original association was composed of six sub- 
sidiary associations and, was commonly called "Six 
Companies/' The reason for this method of or- 
ganization is that these subsidiary associations 
represent the different districts from which the 
Chinese in this country have come. There is no 
permanent president elected, but the post is as- 
sumed by the presidents of these subsidiary asso- 
ciations in turn. 

The association, in New York is composed of two 
subsidiary associations, namely, the Ning Yung 
and the Lin Sang. The Ning Yung represents the 
Sing Ning district, while the Lira Sanig represents 
all other districts. The reason for this representa- 



tion is that there are more people from Sing Ning 
than from all other districts. Every other year 
each society elects from among its members a 
president of the consolidated association. 

The other consolidated or united associations in 
different cities usually elect thefir officers by them- 
selves, unlike the two larger ones, described above. 

The District and Family Societies. District 
societies are those which comprise natives of one 
or more districts in China. The family societies 
are those to which all those who have the same 
family name belong. 

The Benevolent Protective Societies. These or- 
ganizations disregard the differences of names and 
districts and accept all those who desire to belong 
to them and thus enjoy the largest membership 
of all the -societies except the consolidated bodies. 
These organizations, commonly known as Tongs, 
were created for the same purpose as others, 
namely for benevolent work. Having become 
larger in membership asid stronger financially, 
they, like strong nations, were inclined to test 
supremacy among themselves upon any pretext. 
Holding this attitude in dealing with one another, 
these Tong,s had no spirit of reconciliation. Thus 
a dispute between two men of different Tongs 



often became a dispute between the Tongs them- 
selves, which often resorted to fights, commonly 
called "Tong wars/' 

These fights can be considered nothing but 
demonstrations of lawlessness and a proof of 
barbarism, because it is inconceivable that 
any disputes of whatever nature cannot be 
settled in any other method than this. It is 
the most unforgivable sin that has been com- 
mitted by some of theise Tongs in the name of the 
Chinese here, who are forced to share this un- 
speakable disgrace with them and who, even today, 
still suffer from the) reflection of these horrible 
memories which are often exaggerated in the 
newspapers, novels and motion pictures. 

To compare Tongs with some of the secret or- 
ganizations in America, however, their records are 
not so shocking. The Tongs have been -at least 
free from the 1 commission of such dangerous 
activities as are carried on by a certain secret 
order even today, and their records contain noth- 
ing like ruthless torture ajnd the! barbaric violence 
against both men and women committed by that 
secret order in its movements against its racial 
and religious enemies. 



The Tong fights, however, have always been 
recognized by good citizens as a great evil, which 
must be done away with altogether. Fortunately, 
agreements were reached in 1913 by all Tongs in 
New York under the pressure of the Chinese mer- 
chants, students, officials, and American public 
men, to maintain peace and order forever for the 
.sake of the good name of the Chinese people and 
the welfare and business of their community. In 
San Francisco, an agreement was also reached last 
year through the goods offices of the Peace Society 
and others. And up to this day they all have 
faithfully abided by these agreements. 

2. Educational and Religious 
The Chinese Students' Alliance. The Chinese 
students in this country have an organization 
called ffche Chinese Students' Alliance of the United 
States. It is divided into three sections, the 
Eastern, the mid-Western, and the Western. Its 
organs are the Chinese Students* Monthly, m Eng- 
lish, and the Chinese Students' Quarterly, in 
Chinese. As it is impractical for the alliance to 
hold conferences, each section holds an annual 
conference, which all the Chinese students and 
their friends within its district are requested to 
attend. The conference is usually held during the 



summer vacation at a suitably located university 
or college designated by the officers of the respec- 
tive section with, of course, the permission of the 
authorities of such university or college. It lasts 
usually one week, and the following events take 
place : 

Platform address by prominent men, 

Open Forum, 

Oratorical Contests, 

Debates, both in Chinese and English, 


Track and Field meets, 

Tennis tournaments, 

Soccer football, 

Soft baseball, 


Water sports, 
Inter-Club stunts, 

Social entertainments and receptions, 

Besides this central organization, there are a 
number of Chinese students' clubs. Every uni- 
versity or college, to which a number of Chinese 
attend, has such a club. Many of these clubs have 
their own clubhouses, sudh as those in the Col- 
orado School of Mines at Golden, Colo., at Stan* 
ford University, Palo Alto, Cal., at the University 
of California, Berkeley, Cal., Cornell University, 



Ithaca, N. Y., and the University of Illinois, Cham- 
paign, 111. 

There are also a number of clubs which are 
composed of the students of different colleges and 
universities, such as the Educational Club, Bank- 
ing dub, Political Science Club and the Science 
Society. Some of the students belong to the clubs 
and fraternities of their respective colleges. The? 
Chinese students here have also their own fra- 

The Chinese Schools. In some of the large 
Chinese colonies in this country-, such as in San 
Francisco and New York, there are schools or~ 
gaoiized by the Chinese exclusively for their chil- 
dren. They give lessons late in the afternoon and 
at night after the daily sessions of public schools. 
The courses given by these schools consist chiefly 
of the Chinese language, history and geography. 
Their purpose is to acquaint these children with 
their parents' country and language, as they may 
have an interest in China and they may go there 
for trade or other purposes when they grow up. 

Objections have, however, been raised against 
this kind of schools for the reason that they do 
not work in harmony with the program of 



Americanization. The Chinese contention is 
that, inasmuch as Chinese lessons are given in 
American universities to prepare American bus- 
iness men for the Chinese field, the Chinese- 
American children, who have the opportunity to 
learn things Chinese, would be best suited for 
this field when they grow up ; and that inasmuch 
as they do not neglect their public school work 
at the same time, they should be given the op- 
portunity to learn these things when they are 
young, in order to attain the best results. 

The Chinese Students' Christian Association. 

"To unite all the Chinese Christian students in 
North America, to promote growth of Christian 
character and to carry on aggressive Christian 
work, especially by and among the Chinese 
students" there exists a Chinese Students' Chris- 
tian Association of North America. This organi- 
zation is divided into (a) the local unit and (b) 
the departments. There are departments, 
namely, the Eastern, the Middle West, the 
Western, and the Women's. There are also a 
central executive board, a central committee of 
ways and means and a central advisory com- 
mittee. It 'has a quarterly publication called 
"Fellowship Notes," published in October, De- 



cember, March and May of each year, and an 
annual number in January. 

The Chinese Young Men's and Women's Chris- 
tian Associations. During the last ten years the 
Chinese of the younger generation have estab- 
lished these organizations in various Chinese 
colonies in this country. Even in San Rafael, a 
small town of California, there is a Chinese Y. 
M. C. A. Their activities are identical to those 
undertaken by the American Y. M. C. A's. Be- 
sides these works, they give English lessons to 
those who had no opportunity to learn the lan- 
guage. These lessons are usually given free. 
The Chinese "Y" in Chicago has planned a 
kindergarten for the Chinese youths there. The 
San Francisco Chinese "Y" has been making 
efforts to build a house for itself. The New 
York Chinese "Y" has recently been reorganized 
and has secured a larger membership. There 
are five! Chinese Y. M. C. A's and three Chinese 
Y. W. C. A's in this country today. 

Other Religious Works. Chinese Christians 
have long been active among their countrymen 
here. Churches and missions established and 
undertaken by and for the Chinese may be 
found in almost all the large Chinese colonies 



in this country. Sunday schools have been 
opened by Chinese Christian preachers in dif- 
ferent cities and towns. The number of missions 
undertaken by or in conjunction with Chinese 
Christians in this country totals forty-one, which 
are classified as follows : 

Baptist 5 

Congregational 7 

Cumberland Presbyterian ... 2 

Episcopal Protestant 2 

Independent Baptist 2 

Independent Missions 4 

Interdenominational 3 

Methodist Episcopal 10 

Presbyterian 5 

United Christian Missions .... 1 

The Chinese- American Citizens' Alliance. The 

first organization of the Chinese Native Sons of 
Golden State, known as Native Sons' Parlor, was 
established in 1895 in San Francisco. In 1912 
this original parlor became the Grand Parlor 
and three new parlors were organized, namely 
San Francisco, Oakland and Los Angeles. A 
year later the Fresno and the San Diego Parlors 
were added. At the third Annual Convention 
held in Los Angeles, it was decided to establish 
another organization for the benefit of those 
born outside of the State of California to be 
called the Chinese American Citizens' Alliance. 


The Building o f the Chinese-American Citizens' Allian 
in San Francisco 


The first parlor opened outside of California was 
the Chicago Parlor, and later came the Detroit, 
the Pittsburgh, the Portland (Oregon) Parlors. 
Thus there are nine branch parlors of the United 
Parlor or the Alliance with a membership over 
3,500 strong. 

The new building of the United Parlor in San 
Francisco was erected in 1921 at a cost of $135,- 
000 and is one of the most modern and magnifi- 
cent structures in San Francisco's "Chinatown" 

During the world war the Alliance had several 
hundred members in the U. S. Army and Navy. 
Most of them went overseas, of whom many re- 
turned temporary disabled and some gave up 
their lives. 

There are also Chinese- American Citizens' or- 
ganizations in New York, Boston and Baltimore, 
which also contributed many of their members 
to the service. 

3. Trade 

Chambers of Commerce. These Chambers were 
organized by the Chinese merchants in their col- 
onies here for the purpose of arbitrating and set- 
tEng disputes between Chinese parties and mak- 



ing rules and regulations to govern themselves. 
They may be found in the Chinese colonies of 
large cities, such as San Francisco and New? York. 

On Leong Merchants' Association. This organi- 
zation has been active^ during recefrt years in pro- 
moting trade interests among its own members 
and developing the Chinese colonies. Its head- 
quarters are in New York and it has a number of 
branches in many large cities in the East. One of 
the greatest achievements of *his Association is 
the recent erection of its fine club house in New 

Chinese Restaurant Owners' Associations. Hav- 
ing seen the? rapid growth of the restaurant busi- 
ness in this country, the Chinese merchants in 
that business 'have organized these Associations 
to further their interests. The most notable of 
these are the New England Association in Boston 
and the one to New York. 

4. Political 

The Chinese Free Masons' Association. This 
Association was established long ago for the pur- 
pose of overthrowing the Manchu Dynasty. Since 
the establishment of the? Republic, it interests it- 
self in promoting the republican idea among its 



The Chinese Constitutional Party. The mem- 
bers of this party were followers of Kang Yu Wai, 
who ^stablisihed the reform regime in 1898 and 
whose work was destroyed 'by the Empress Dow- 
ager. Hence it was originally called the Reform 
Party. It was very powerful among the Chinese 
in this country after the failure of the reform 
regime and during the reaction of the Empress. 
Since the establishment of the Republic, it has 
been working towards constitutional progress in 

The Chinese Nationalists' League. This League 
is a branch of the Party which undertook msany 
revolutions towards the end of the Manchu Dy- 
nasty and at last succeeded, in 1911, in overthrow- 
ing the Matochu regime and establishing the Re- 
public. Since then it has -become very active 
among the Chinese in Ifliis country, especially 
those of the younger generation. 



Legal Treatment 

Since the Treaty of 1880 between China and 
the United States and the first Chinese Exclusion 
Law of 1882 went into effect, no Chinese laborers 
have been allowed to land in this country except 
those who registered here according to the Act of 
1893 and the seamen under the Seamen's Act of 
1917. The Chinese merchants, students, travelers 
and others who are not skilled or unskilled la- 
borers have been, however, entitled to admission 
by that law and by the provisions of that treaty 
under the "most favored nation clause." Article 
II of that treaty states : 

"Chinese subjects, whether proceeding to 
the United States as teachers, students, mer- 
chants, or from curiosity, together with their 
body and household servants, and Chinese la- 
borers who are now in the United States shall 
be allowed to go and come of their own free 
will and accord, and shall be accorded all the 
rigjhts, privileges, immunities, and, eixemp- 
tions which are accorded to the citizens and 
subjects of the most favored nation." 

The Law of 1882, amended in 1884, requires of 
amy of the Chinese, who ihave isuch treaty iligiits 
to come to this country, a document giving infor- 
mation as to his status, indorsed by an American 



Consul after a thorough investigation. This doc- 
ument, commonly called "Section Six Certificate," 
since it complies with, the requirements of Sec- 
tion 6 of that Law, is recognized by the Law as a 
Prime Facie evidence of the facts stated, -and that 
the holder is therefore entitled to land upon iden- 
tification without examination. 

The! Act of 1892 declared a total exclusion with 
certain exemptions and Chinese applicants hold- 
ing "Section Six" certificates have since been 
subjected to a itlhorough examination, in -spite of 
this provision, for, it was once stated, the investi- 
gations made by the American Consul were not 
always reliable. Thus, the immigration officer 
is the sole judge of all the cases. The result (has 
been! that ill-treatment of the exempt classes have 
often been heard of. Even as Me as 1916, the 
exclusion laws were so administrated that it 
caused a vigorous protest from the Chinese Con- 
solidated Benevolent Association in San Fran- 
cisco to the President of *he United States, con- 
taining the following passage: 

"The condition attending the treatment of 
the Chinese mercantile classes has been per- 
mitted by the Bureau of Labor to go on un- 
checked. Protests have been futile to secure! 
courteous treatment or prompt landing of 



Chinese merchants, students, and even native 
American-foorn Chinese, 

"Under the exclusion act our bankers, mer- 
chants, -and students 'have the right to enter 
this country under certain defined restric- 

"The countless wrongs and insults to which 
tlhe immigration service has .subjected these 
exempt classes we have endeavored on many 
'occasions to remove by respectful protests, 
but without effect. 

"Our merchant princes who come! here pre- 
pared to throw open to the United States the 
rich and inexhaustible stores of Oriental 
trade and commence through Pacific coast 
ports are, on their arrival, herded in a deten- 
tion ,shed, their wives are held in custody dur- 
ing weeks and often months of investigation 
instead of being landed under unquestioned 
bonds, as humanity demands. Students and 
even American-born Chinese are kept in the 
immigration station for months with their 
cases undecided." 

Although the treatment has since been greatly 
improved, the examination! of the exempt classes 
holding "Section Six" certificates has still been 

It must be understood that the objection of 
the Chinese holding such certificates to this ex- 
amination is not caused by the fear that they may 
be denied admission for, if they have -been able to 
secure "Section Six" certificates, they are cer- 


t&inly admissible, but is 'based on the fact that 
they -are not accorded their treaty rights. 

The ports of Chinese entry -are limited to a few. 
A Chinese of the exempt classes holding a "Sec- 
tion 6" certificate is denied admission, and even 
an examination, if he applies at a port not open 
to the Chinese, which may be open to other aliens. 
This is indeed contrary to the provisions of the 

Thanks to a number of decisions of the courts, 
some of the common! rights of ian (immigrant have 
beetoi procured for the Chinese. 

The wives and children of members of the "ex- 
empt" classes have jua status of ifcheir own and 
under the exclusion laws were not admissible to 
the United States. But the Supreme Court once 
decided (176, U. S. 459) that the lawful wife and 
children of a Chinese of the -exempt classes may be 
admitted to the United States without presenting 
a "Section Six" certificate because "the husband 
and father is -entitled to the company of the wife 
and the care i and custody of the children." This 
privilege has, however, been limited to the wife 
and unmarried daughter and male children up to 
14 years of age?. Male children 15 years of age or 
over and under 18 'are presumed to be members 



of the father's household, but such presumption 
is subject to rebuttal. Such children at 18 or over 
and under 21 are required to prove affirmatively 
and to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Labor 
that they are members of the father's household. 
No Chlinese male of 21 or over is permitted to 
enter the United States under this decision. 

The Chinese students in the! United States may 
of necessity in maintaining their status, work to 
earn their livelihood here, according to "In re 
Tarn hung, 223 Fed. 801, 802": 

"Our treaty with China provides that Chi- 
nese students 'shall be -allowed to go and come 
of their own free wfill and accord, aM ghall be 
accorded all the rights, privileges, immunities 
and exemptions which are! accorded to the 
citizens and subjects of the most favored mo- 
tion'. 22 Stat., 826. The Chinese exclusion 
act provides for Identification and admission 
of Chinese students, but neither therein nor 
in any other law has 'Congress repudiated the 
aforesaid treaty promise of this nation. Stu- 
dents of -all other nations coming hither can 
of right follow any legitimate! vocation con- 
temporaneous with or after their studies are 
completed, thereto need the consent of no im- 
.migration officers, can remain here! so lomg as 
they please, aaid can not be deported because 
thereof, Chinese students are guaranteed the 
like rights by our treaty. Having lawfully 
entered this country, there fis no law author- 
izing thedr deportation for any reason save 



that applicable to all aliens, viz., for offense 
cofenmitted subsequent to enltry and connected 
with or incidental to prostitution, 

"Perhaps Congress could have broken our 
plighted faiith and treaty by law stipulating 
that Chinese -students 'should loaf in their lei- 
sure? and not labor for a livinig could have 
placed Chinese students wfho here turn to hon- 
est labor for a livelihood on the plane of 
panders and prostitutes 'so far as deportation 
is concerned; but, (happily, not havting done 
so, needs ino argument to demonstrate that 
the Secretary of Labor cannot that it is not 
given to him to violate the national promise, 
repudiate tite treaty, and convert it into a 
mere scrap of paper." 

Since the? Seamen's Act and the revised Immii- 
gration Law took effect in 1917, the Chinese sea- 
men, who theretofore were mot allowed to land 
both by the Treaty and by exclusion laws, have 
befen treated under the equal basis ois seamen of 
other nationalities as provided by that Act. They 
have been permitted to come ashore, to be dis- 
charged and to make temporary stay for reship- 
ment, notwithstanding th<e exclusion laws. The 
Department of Labor has recently issued rulings 
prohibiting the) further landing of Chinese seamen 
at any American port, except with bond. "In re 
Ho Chung," the United States District Court for 
the Southern District of New York has, however, 
made the following decision: 



"This motion 'having come to be heard be- 
fore this Court fit not being dis- 
puted by the Government that the relator, 
Ho Chung, is a bona fide seaman and is not 
suffering from any disabilities under the Im- 
migration Law, and *hat therefore as such 
Chinese seaman he is not within any prohibi- 
tion as far as landing in this country for 
'shore leave and in pursuance of his calling is 
concerned; and further in view of the de- 
cision of Judge Hand, rendered in this Court 
in the Jameson case, 185 Fed. Rep. 165, hold- 
ing that a bona fide Ohin'ese seaman is not 
excluded under the Chinese Exclusion Laws 
and Treaty from landing temporarily in pur- 
suit of his calling as- such seaman; and 
further in view of Ithe fact that Section 32 of 
the Immigration Act on which the Govern- 
ment depends for claim of its authority in 
the Secretary of Labor to issue hi& amend- 
ment to Rule Ten of the Immigration Law 
and Rule Seven of the Chinese Exclusion 
Laws dated April 29, 1922 does not consti- 
tute authority for the issuance of such 
amended regulations, (it is 

Ordered that the writ be sustained for 
lack of power in the Secretary of Labor to 
issue such regulation and the rdafbor is here- 
by ordered released from custody in order to 
enable) him to land temporarily for the pur- 
pose of pursuing his calling -as a bona fide 

Other than the exclusion laws, there are also 
laws, both Federal and State, which discriminate 
against the Chinese, or the Mongolian race. It is 



needless to say that these laws tend to create seri- 
ous situations between the nations. Their inad- 
visability and unwisdom have been seen by many 
far-sighted Americans and their revision or repeal 

"Among the most important constitutional safe- 
guards guaranteeing justice to the individuals is 
the famous Fourteenth Amendment," said Dr. 
Sidney L. Gulick in ibis American Democracy and 
Asiatic Citizenship. "It provides that *no State shall 
deprive any person of life, liberty, or property 
without due process of law, nor deny to any per- 
son within its jurisdiction the equal protection of 
the laws'. On November 1, 1915, Justice Hughes, 
in a judgment dealing with the law passed by the 
State of Ariaooa restricting the privileges of 
aliens in regard to employment in order to give 
.superior privileges to citizens, pronounced the 
law unconstitutional. He said *hat 'equal pro- 
tection of ifae laws is a pledge of the protection 
of equal laws'. (U. S. Report 239, p. 33X.) Has 
this important principle been observed in laws 
dealing wdth Asiatics ? Should not steps be taken 
to remove from all State legislations those laws 
that discriminaite against aliens and especially 
that discriminate between aliens?" 



Dr. Gulick concluded Ms chapter on "China: 
Our Treaties and Our Treatment," as follows: 

"A New China, however, ihas -been born. 
Though she has not yet approached us with 
any definite requests for changes in our laws 
and our treatment, is it not clear that she 
would be quite justified in doing so? 

"But whether she does or not, here fe the 
actual appeal of the facts, pathetic, urgent, 
humiliating, ominous. 

"How will America meet this appeal ? Shall 
we go on our way unheeding? Shall we con- 
tinue to disregard our treaties and humiliate 
mighty neighbors 'across the Pacific? That 
were an ominous course/' 



Social Treatment 

"When California was admitted into the 
Union in 1850," said Gertrude Atherton in her 
"California, an Intimate History/' "the Chinese, 
welcome immigrants, turned out as patriotically 
as the Americans in the great parade which cel- 
ebrated that historic episode, and were given an 
honorable position. Both Governor Burnett, the 
first civil governor of California, and his suc- 
cessor, accepted the Chinese as desirable acqui- 
sitions; and Governor McDougal in his annual 
message, spoke of them as 'one of the most 
worthy classes of our newly adopted citizens/ 
and recommended that further immigration 
should be encouraged." 

At that time who could imagine that Gover- 
nor McDougal's recommendation was the fore- 
runner of an entire reversion of this sentiment 
towards the Chinese in California twenty or 
thirty years after? 

There came the sand-lots, and other orators, 
wfoo started the anti-Chinese agitations, followed 
by politicians who utilized it for their political 
benefit. In the '70s and '80s the Chinese were 



looked upon and treated like enemies, not only 
in California, but on the entire Pacific coast. 

The movement gradually spread to the moun- 
tain States. In 1880 riots broke out in Denver, 
Colorado, in which one Chinese was killed with- 
out provocation and many injured and at least 
$20,000 worth of property destroyed. The year 
1885 was marked by violent outbreaks against 
the Chinese in the territories. At Rock Springs, 
Wyoming, twenty-eight Chinese were killed and 
numbers injured and property to the amount of 
$148,000 destroyed. * 

During all this time proper protection could 
not be secured. The Chinese, then trying to 
secure federal protection, pointed to Article III 
of the Treaty of 1880 as having been understood 
and intended to afford special protection to the 
resident Chinese in return for which China had 
agreed to the suspension of the immigration of 
laborers. But they were asked to appeal to the 
local authorities and the courts for redress. 

The history of the social treatment of the 
Chinese in this country during the years of anti- 
Chinese agitation and the inauguration and 

* Chinese Immigration, Mary B. Coolidge, P. 271. 


execution of the exclusion laws is a long and 
sad one. There are a number of books written 
by authorities on the subject, to which those 
who desire to learn more may be referred. 

The boycott of American goods in China at 
the beginning of the present century brought 
about better treatment for both the resident 
Chinese and the Chinese immigrants. Yet pro- 
tection of Chinese against violence is still lack- 
ing. Even today occasional cases of violent 
treatment aroused by anti-Chinese feelings are 
often reported. 

Generally speaking, the Chinese in the East- 
ern States receive better treatment than those in 
the West. The reason is quite obvious. The 
number of the Chinese in the West is much 
larger than that in the East. The West 'has a very 
unpleasant history of Chinese immigration while 
the East has not. Furthermore, the Pacific 
coast is the gate of Oriental immigration, while 
the Atlantic is not. 

If we examine the treatment of the Chinese 
by classes in this country we may find that the 
students are most highly regarded, the mer- 
chants next, and others next. This is perhaps 



because the Chinese students have established 
their reputation in this country. Their ability 
to pursue such high grade courses as given by 
great universities in this country and to accomp- 
lish remarkable results in spite of the fact that 
they do so through the medium of a language 
foreign to them, secure the high regard and 
respect of most of the American people of in- 

The Chinese merchants also enjoy a good 
reputation among the American business men. 
Their integrity in general has never been im- 
paired and their commercial ethics is admired 
by all those who have dealings with them. They 
have proven to be very desirable more so than 
some of other foreign business men in this coun- 
try. The fact that many of them represent large 
American firms in China is enough to give an 
idea of how they are regarded in American com- 
mercial circles. 

Socially, the Ohinese in this country are not 
altogether unidentified with American circles, 
though they are handicapped in social life owing 
to the small number of Chinese women here. 
American organizations, such as religious socie- 
ties and clubs, often extend to them invitations 



to their social gatherings. In return, the Chinese 
merchants' associations and students' clubs often 
invite their American friends to their circles 
and entertain them with things Chinese. Furth- 
ermore, we find that many promient clubs here 
have Chinese members. In some of the Chino- 
American organizations in this country, Chinese 
directors and officers may be found. 

The above is only an account of the treatment 
the Chinese here receive from the American 
people as a class from a class of equal or like 
standing. Now let us inquire into the treatment 
received by the Chinese people as a whole. 

Among all the American people those of the 
intellectual class know us best. Persons of this 
class generally use intelligence and knowledge 
as the basis and common sense as a means to 
judge a country and a people. They do not 
take things for granted. Indeed, they examine 
everything which they see or hear or read, as 
to its truth, and make their own decisions ; and 
they are not easily swayed by influences from 
mischievious sources. I do not include here, 
however, those who are prejudiced for any rea- 
son at all. For prejudice usaully obscures one's 
vision and hinders one's conscience. 



These Americans know that China 'has a great 
history and civilization, though it is quite dif- 
ferent from the modern European civilization. 
They know that every nation has different 
classes of people, and so has China; and that 
the Chinese who first came to this country were 
unfortunately of laboring class ; and that this class 
of people cannot represent their country intel- 
lectually. But they have no prejudice against 
these people. On contrary, they have sympathy 
for these people because of their being less for- 
tunate than themselves. 

The general public in this country, unfortun- 
nately, does not know or understand the 
Chinese. This is due partly to the remaining 
effect of the propaganda against the Chinese 
during the anti-Chinese agitation here, but 
primarily to the present prevalence of certain 
elements in this country, which make this knowl- 
edge and understanding impossible. In fact, 
the public is directed to misunderstand us, in- 
stead of being given an opportunity to know us 
really and truly. It is every day and everywhere 
induced, led and taught to dislike, despise and 
hate the Chinese, who have suffered public 
humiliation winch they do not deserve. 



The Chinese in American fiction, the films 
(and sometimes plays), and exhibitions are, 
with very few exceptions, villains, law-breakers 
and criminals. They are vilified as an immoral 
and vicious people. Their life is depicted as 
mysterious and dangerous. Their colonies are 
described as centers of lawlessness and crime. 
The common fiction writers, film producers and 
exhibitors of anything Chinese have been in- 
dulging in the habit of depicting and exaggerat- 
ing certain unlawful acts committed by some 
degenerate Chinese in this country years ago 
and nothing else. But they fail to understand 
that these acts in violation of both American 
and Chinese laws, such as gambling, opium 
smoking and Tong fighting, can by no means 
represent the life of "Chinatown," far less can 
they represent the life of the Chinese people as 
a whole. 

Just as they were subjected to attack and con- 
demnation by the sand-lot orators forty years 
ago, the Chinese are now subjected to attack 
and condemnation in these different forms. 

In the films vilifying the Chinese, some of the 
Japanese actors have been employed to act as 
the Chinese. These persistent and insidious 



efforts can be understood but to discredit the 
Chinese nation, excite racial hatred and alienate 
Chino-American friendship. 

If items like the old slave markets, lynching 
practices in the South, and the crime wave 
throughout the country were depicted and ex- 
aggerated and shown to the Chinese public in 
China, I have no doubt the American residents 
there would consider them as detrimental to 
the good name of their great country and I am 
sure that no reasonable man would deny their 
right to indignant condemnation. 

I know that only when two countries are at 
war things of such an unrepresentative nature 
are allowed to be shown to the general public. 
It is indeed inconceivable that, while the rela- 
tions between the two great Republics are most 
cordial, these things should be tolerated and per- 
sistently shown to the public. Reciprocity is 
supreme in international relations. While we 
in China do not even think of presenting to the 
public things offensive to the American people, 
it is not only unfriendly, but also unfair that we 
should be subjected to such vilification and hu- 
miliation in this country. 



Although here and there the censorship 
boards and city administrations have shown their 
sympathy for the Chinese protests and have 
done justice in matters concerning such films 
and exhibitions, as a whole these things are 
allowed to spread all over the country. It 
is to be deplored that the goodwill and friend- 
ship of a nation should thus be sacrificed by a 
few for the purpose of making a profit, if not 
for any other reason; and that freedom and 
liberty should, in the absence of federal laws 
or censorship, thus be utilized at the expenses 
of the good name and honor of a friendly people ! 

A few exceptional cases in both films and ex- 
hibitions are, however, worth noting, not only 
because they have set examples in their respec- 
tive fields, but also because they deserve an 
expression of gratitude from the Chinese people. 
In the case of films, Mr. Carl Laemmle, Presi- 
dent of the Universal Film Corporation, has 
made himself known as against the common prac- 
tice of portraying the Chinese as villains in the 
motion pictures. He says: 

"I am entirely against the policy of ha- 
bitually letting foreigners appear as villains 
in pictures. Especially I am against the 
abuse of the Chinese by letting them play 



only the part of murderers and other crim- 
inals, as seems to have been popular re- 
cently amongst certain producers. The 
Chinese in this country are very law-abiding 
citizens and their philosophy, high moral 
standard and courtesy could in many cases 
be quoted as worth while imitating by west- 
ern races." 

In the case of exhibitions, the City of Atlantic 
City inaugurated in 1919 an Ordinance prohib- 
iting such exhibitions, which was a result of the 
existence of an exhibition misrepresenting the 
life and customs of Chinese people. The text 
of this Ordinance is quoted below: 

"Section 1* That no person shall give, 
render or assist in giving or rendering any 
show, illustration, picture, tableau or other 
exhibition setting forth or portraying 
habits, characteristics or traits of an inde- 
cent or immoral nature, or tending to dis- 
credit or hold up to contempt any race or 
class of people, or tending to promote racial 
hatred, and any such exhibition shall be im- 
mediately discontinued if, after view of 
same, a majority of the Board of Commis- 
sioners determine it to be of the character 
hereby prohibited. Any such exhibition be- 
lieved to be of the character hereby pro- 
hibited shall not be licensed until viewed 
and approved by a majority of the Board of 
Commissioners, and the license of any per- 
son or business responsible for such exhibi- 
tion may be revoked by the Board of Corn- 


missioners after hearing, upon five days' 
notice to the person licensed. 

"Section 2. Any person, principal or em- 
ployee violating any of the provisions of 
this ordinance, or who shall refuse to dis- 
continue such exhibition after view and de- 
cision, as heretofore provided, shall, upon 
conviction thereof, pay a fine of any amount 
not exceeding one hundred dollars, or be 
imprisoned for any period not exceeding 
thirty days, in default of the payment of 
said fine." 




From the foregoing chapters we have gained 
a general knowledge of the real Chinese in this 
country. We find that their living conditions, 
their morality and behavior are not such as 
have been painted* Their assimilability, as a 
whole, is no less than that of any other foreigners 
in this country, although the Europeans have 
much more advantage than they have in this 

Without outside assistance, they have been 
steadily improving their communities. Their 
benevolent organizations have been working for 
the welfare of their fellow countrymen 'here. 
Their commercial and industrial enterprises 
have been busy promoting trade relations be- 
tween the two countries. Their educational and 
religious organizations have been active in de- 
veloping intellectuality and in advancing Ameri- 
canism among their own people. 

Now will the American public be generous 
enough to give them credit for these works? 
They need encouragement so that they may ad- 
vance still further. They need moral support 



so that they may have the courage and enthusi- 
asm to work still harder. 

But, first of all, those fictions, films and exhi- 
bitions which vilify the Chinese people in various 
forms must be done away with, because their 
existence means a great hindrance to the ad- 
vancement of the Chinese in this country, as 
they tend to discourage the Chinese in their 
work for Americanization. 

Furthermore, these fictions, films, and exhi- 
bitions have many great ill-effects on both China 
and this country. They work towards the alien- 
ation of friendship between the two countries. 
Upon the Chinese people the effects are: 

1. That they are looked upon as a cruel, 
wicked and vicious people. 

2. That they are therefore disliked, feared 
and hated by the American people, who have no 
real knowledge of them. 

3. That the Chinese nation is held in con- 
tempt and friendship between the two countries 
is therefore greatly impaired. 

4. That a better understanding of China and 
the Chinese by the general American public is 



5. That the Chinese in this country are dis- 
couraged to -become more Americanized. 

Upon the American people the following ef- 
fects may result from these fictions, films and 
exhibitions : 

1. That they are looked upon as those who 
like to make false representations, exaggerate 
facts and find fault with the Chinese people. 

2. That at least they are thought to lack a 
sense of justice, as they allow misrepresentation 
and falsehood to exist without making efforts to 
correct them. 

3. That they therefore not only lose the 
friendship, but also the respect of the Chinese 

4. That the efforts made by American diplo- 
mats in China to create a better friendship there 
for America are hampered, as the Chinese who 
return from this country will <naturally tell their 
folks what they have seen and read here about 

5. That the endeavor to improve trade rela- 
tions between China and this country is also 

It is not the intention of the author to suggest 
any means of overcoming these ill effects be- 



cause he knows that if the American people 
desire to overcome these effects, means can be 
found without difficulty. Moreover, in the 
absence of federal laws or censorship restrict- 
ing these things, the power to overcome their ill 
effects is vested entirely and solely in the Ameri- 
can people. His intention is therefore only to 
present the case to the American people and 
let them judge whether it is just to subject a 
friendly people to such vilification, whether or 
not these things are detrimental to both coun- 
tries, and if they would remain silent if the cases 
were reversed. 

To open the way to a better and fuller under- 
standing of the Chinese people, there is another 
important factor which must be considered* It 
is the textbooks on China and the Chinese. These 
books are read by millions of children in this 
country, who depend upon them to create their 
fundamental impressions about China and its 
people, which they will naturally carry with 
them as they grow up. With those who are not 
fortunate enough to acquire more knowledge of 
China these impressions will remain as long as 
they live. 

It is to be regretted that most of the text- 



books on China and the Chinese published in 
this country are rather out of date. Some of 
them were written before the establishment of 
the Chinese Republic, since when radical 
changes have taken place in China. Others 
describe China in the light of the old "China- 
town" in San Francisco of decades ago, which 
died with the earthquake. The misrepresenta- 
tion in those books is indeed wholesale and its 
consequences are undoubtedly serious. A re- 
vision is therefore very much in order. 

During late years, friendship between China 
and the United States has been extraordinarily 
cordial, especially since the Washington Confer- 
ence in which America lent her helping hand to 
China in settling many of the latter's interna- 
tional problems. But it is never too much to 
seek its perfection, as time goes on. In the eyes 
of the Chinese in this country, there is one very 
important factor which now stands in the way of 
such perfection, and which must be dealt with in 
most perfect candor. 

As explained in Chapter X, the Chinese who 
are entitled to come to this country by Treaty 
provisions, L e., merchants, students, travelers, 
teachers, editors, etc., who are neither skilled 



nor unskilled laborers, are not treated in the 
same manner -as other nationals of the same 
classes. While it should be acknowledged that 
the administration of the Exclusion Laws has 
been much more lenient during the last decade 
or two than that in the '80s and '90s, it must be 
said that, owing to the technicalities of these 
laws and sometimes to the discriminatory atti- 
tude of the immigration officers, the Chinese of 
the exempt classes have not been accorded their 
full treaty rights. 

The Chinese applying for admission to this 
country, holding the required "Section 6" cer- 
tificates, which are recognized by the Exclusion 
laws as prima facie evidence of their status and 
which are properly indorsed by the American 
consul after thorough investigation into their 
true status at the place whence they come, are 
nevertheless subjected to a rigid and thorough 
examination which usually causes them great 
delay, detention and discomfort, while other im- 
migrants of the same classes are admitted upon 
presentation of their passports, which are only 
vised by the American consul. Although this 
examination is often waived at some ports, as a 
whole it is still practised. 







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First Issue of the Oldest Chinese Newspaper in New York 


It is gratifying to note that Hon. James J. 
Davis, Secretary of Labor, has been outspoken 
in disapproval of this hardship for the Chinese of 
the exempt classes a-nd has recommended a modi- 
fication of the Exclusion Laws. In his Annual 
Report to the President for the fiscal year of 1922, 
Mr. Davis said : 

"Some of the provisions of the present 
(Exclusion) law are unnecessarily harsh 
so far as they apply to the clearly exempt 
classes, while on the other hand they are 
very defective in avoiding their violation by 
the dishonest. China is a friendly nation 
and commercial relations with China are 
profitable to our commerce. The law should 
be so framed that it will bring about the 
exclusion of the laborers but otherwise will 
encourage commercial relations and facili- 
tate the movement of the merchant who 
comes here in good faith to patronize our 

From the Chinese viewpoint the following 
suggestions in regard to a modification of the 
Exclusion laws are considered in order, in view 
of the Treaty of 1880 : 

1. That the laws should conform to the 
terms of the Treaty of 1880. 

2. That the laws should, therefore, only de- 
clare for labor exclusion, instead of a total 
exclusion with exceptions. 



3. That total exclusion, in spite of its excep- 
tions, means a discrimination against the 
Chinese race and therefore reflects upon the 
dignity of the Chinese nation. 

4. That if total exclusion was intended only 
to prevent frauds, changes are still more neces- 
sary, for it is unjust to treat the honest and dis- 
honest upon the same basis. 

5,. - That if Japanese laborers can be excluded 
from this country by a "gentlemen's agreement," 
instead of by laws prohibiting their coming here, 
in consideration of the friendship between the 
two countries, it is more than proper to secure 
this modification in order to conform to the 
Treaty, since friendship between America and 
China is even more cordial. 

6. That Article II of the Treaty of 1880 
should be put into practice. 

7. That this modification will act as a means 
of promoting commercial relations between 
China and this country, as more Chinese mer- 
chants, of prominence, will undoubtedly come here. 

8. That a better understanding between the 
two peoplefs will be secured, when more of the in- 
tellectual classes of people can freely come. 



Some people may be alarmed by these modi- 
fications and may think that they will again 
bring in Chinese labor. They may be informed 
that China has always kept her treaty obliga- 
tions and, if the modifications should ever be- 
come a fact, she would certainly see to it that 
no laborer would have a chance to come to this 
country. As to preventing frauds, methods may 
be devised and sipulations may be made with 
the Chinese Government to avoid any such pos- 

China has enough experience in matters con- 
cerning her emigration. She has been once and 
again humiliated on account of her emigrants. 
She is unwilling to send her laboring citizens 
anywhere. Even, when during the last war, the 
Allies requested Chinese labor, China was re- 
luctant to comply with their wishes, and con- 
sented only when provision was made that the 
laborers were to be brought back upon the 
termination of the contracts. The Chinese Gov- 
ernment later saw to it that these terms were 

China's co-operation in preventing the dis- 
honest from breaking her treaty obligations is 
always at hand. If her merchants, students, and 



all others who 'have treaty rights to come to this 
country are treated in the manner specified in 
the treaty, she may offer even more effective 
co-operation in this matter. 

In view of the primary agreement between 
China and the United States that Chinese of 
exempt classes should be admitted more freely and 
those! of the laboring class should not be allowed 
to come, it is hoped that before long the question 
of Chinese immigration in this country, "a blot 
on her (America's) otherwise good name," as 
the late Dr. Wu Ting Fang put it will be 
amicably settled to the satisfaction of both 

But, however this question will be dealt with, 
the Chinese population in this country will surely 
continue to decrease, as all the Chinese now in 
this country, except those born here, will sooner 
or later return to their motherland, and as the 
Treaty and laws will certainly prevent any pos- 
sibility for the coming of Chinese laborers. Mean- 
while, the younger generation will continue to 
help their elders developing their communities, 
their intellectuality and their Americanization. 
And judging from what they have done during 
the last decade or two, we may have confidence 



in that the next ten years will find the Chinese 
in this country still more modernized and pro- 
gressed, and their work in promoting Chino- 
American trade and in advancing America's 
interest more evident and better known to the 
American public. 

If, however, the fictions, motion pictures and 
exhibitions which vilify the Chinese people are 
to continue throughout this country, it is feared 
that the long endured patience of the Chinese 
will one day be exhausted. Retaliation is un- 
pleasant, but if they fail in appealing to the 
American public they will have to find a way 
by which they may succeed in calling attention 
of the American people. 

The prejudice against the Mongolian Race in 
this country is still very strong. It has become 
even stronger of late on account of the question 
of Japanese Immigration. In view of the dis- 
criminations which are quite evident among the 
Americans themselves, owing to their different 
origins and ancestries, the prejudice against the 
Mongolian Race should not seem strange. But 
is it a Christian idea? Is it a principle of the 
American Constitution? America is a Christian 
nation, founded upon the great human document 



which recognizes the equality of all men. Even 
if the American people should not care for the 
friendship and good will of other races, would 
they forget this great principle of their own? 

In this great principle, we 'Chinese, as well as 
other races, shall have faith and hope for the 



The Chine-American Treaty of 1880 

Article I 

Whenever in the opinion of the Government 
of the United States the coming of Chinese La- 
borers to the United States, or their residence 
therein, affects or threatens to aifect the interests 
of that country, or to endanger the good order of 
the said country or of any locality within the ter- 
ritory thereof, the Government of China agrees 
that the Government of the United States may 
regulate, limit, or suspend such coming and resi- 
dence, but may not absolutely prohibit it The 
limitation or suspension shall be reasonable, and 
shall apply only to Chinese Who may go to the 
United States as laborers, other classes not being 
included in the limitations. Legislation taken 
in regard to Chinese laborers will be of such a 
character only as is necessary to enforce the 
regulation, limitation, or suspension of immigra- 
tion, and immigrants shall not be subject to per- 
sonal maltreatment or abuse. 

Article II 

Chinese subjects, whether proceeding to the 
United States as teachers, students, merchants, 
or from curiosity, together with their body and 
household servants, and Chinese laborers who 
are now in the United States shall be allowed to 
go and come of their own free will and accord, 
and shall be accorded all the rights, privileges, 
immunities, and exemptions which are accorded 
to the citizens and subjects of the most favored 


Article III 

If Chinese laborers, or Chinese of any other 
class, now either permanently or temporarily re- 
siding in the territory of the United States, meet 
with ill treatment at the hands of any other per- 
sons, the Government of the United States will 
exert all its power to devise measures for their 
protection and to secure to them the same 
rights, privileges, immunities, and exemptions as 
may be enjoyed by the citizens or subjects of the 
most favored nation, and to which they are en- 
titled by treaty* 

Article IV 

The high contracting powers having agreed 
upon the foregoing articles, whenever the Gov- 
ernment of the United States shall adopt legisla- 
tive measures in accordance therewith, such 
measures will be communicated to the Govern- 
ment of China. If the measures as enacted are 
found to work hardship upon the subjects of 
China, the Chinese Minister at Washington may 
bring the matter to the notice of the Secretary 
of State of the United States, who will consider 
the subject with him; and the Chinese Foreign 
Office may also bring the matter to the notice of 
the United States minister at Peking and con- 
sider the subject with him, to the end that 
mutual and unqualified benefit may result. 

In faith whereof the respective Plenipotenti- 
aries have signed and sealed the foregoing at 
Peking, in English and Chinese, being three 
original of each text of even tenor and date, 
the ratifications of which shall be exchanged at 
Peking within one year from date of its execu- 



Done at Peking, this seventeenth day of No- 
vember, in the year of our Lord, 1880. Kuanghsu, 
sixth year, tenth moon, fifteenth day. 

JOHN F. SWIFT. (Seal.) 
PAO CHUN. (Seal.) 



A Classified List of Important Chinese Firms in 
the United States 


China-American Trading Co., 37 Union Sq., 
New York City. 

China Commercial Co., 2 Rector St., New 
York City. 

China Mercantile Corp., Woolworth Bldg., 
New York City. 

Chinese Trading Co., 531 Grant Ave., San 
Francisco, Cal. 

Chino-Alnerican Trading Corp., 30 W. 22nd 
St., Chicago, 111. 

Great China Corp., 19 S. Wells St., Chicago, 

Kwong Cheung & Co., 151 E. 26th St., New 
York City. 

Lin Fong Co., 109 Lexington Ave., New York 

Nantoon Co., The, 303 Fifth Ave., New York 

Nanyang Bros., Inc., 680 Fifth Ave., New York 

New China Trading Co., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Oriental Co., 2203 Wentworth St., Chicago, 

Oriental Co., 874 Stockton St., San Francisco, 

Sincere Trading Co., 18 E. 30th St., New York 

Wah Chang Trading Corp., Woolworth Bldg., 
New York City. 



Wah Man Co., 259 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
Yang-Tse Corp., 50 Church St., New York 


Bank of Canton, 1 Wall St., New York City. 

Canton Bank, 500 Montgomery St., San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

Chinese Merchants' Bank, Woolworth Bldg., 
New York City. 


China Mail S. S. Co., 500 Montgomery St., San 
Francisco, Cal. 


Canton Express Co., 11 Brenham Place, San 
Francisco, Cal. 

Canton Trucking Co., 49 Mott St., New York 

China Draying Co., 156 Waverly PL, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

China Shipping Co., 110 Front St., New York 


Canton Importing Co., 2647 Broadway, New 
York City. 

Chinese Bazaar Co., 2626 Broadway, New 
York City. 

City of Hankow Co., 406 Grant Ave., San 
Francisco, Cal. 

Kwong Sun Chong Co., 30 Mott St., New York 

Kwong Yuen Co., 253 Fifth Ave., New York 

Long Sang Ti Co., 323 Fifth Ave., New York 



Ming Sun Co., 2 East 33rd St., New York City. 

Nanking Fook Wah Co., 701 Grant Ave., San 
Francisco, CaL 

Quong Chun & Co., 709 Jackson St., San Fran- 
cisco, CaL 

Sing Chong Co., Grant Ave., San Francisco. 

Sing Fat Co., Grant Ave., San Francisco, CaL 

Soy Kee & Co., 7 Mott St., New York City. 


Antiques Ton-Ying & Co., 605 Fifth Ave., 
New York City. 

Bamboo Baskets China-American Trading 
Co., 37 Union Square, New York City; Fo Sing 
Yuen Co., 104 E. 16th St., New York City. 

Fish, Dried Mee Meng Jan & Co., Tornan- 
dina, Fla. ; Tou Loy & Co., 339 Chartres St., New 
Orleans, La. 

Ginseng Chang Chaw Bros., 104 W 16th St., 
New York City. 

Knitting Canton Hosiery Mfg. Co., 94 War- 
ren St., New York City; Min Hing Knitting Co., 
655 King St., Seattle, Wash. 

Needle Work Chinese Needle Work Co., 37 
E, 28th St., New York City. 

Packing Tso Lam Packing Co., 2129 Archer 
Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Poultry Kwong Sang Poultry Market, 190 
Worth St., New York City. 

Straw Goods Ching Kong & Co., 565 Broad- 
way, New York City. 

Tea Chinese Tea Co., 1027 Stockton St., San 
Francisco; Oriental Tea & Merchandise Co., 22 
S. 8th St., St. Louis, Mo. 



Toggery The China Toggery, 929 Market 
St., San Francisco. 

Tobacco Nanyang Bros. Tobacco Co., 680 
Fifth Ave., New York City. 


Chew Chong Tai Co., 905 Grant Ave., San 

Mee Wah Yuen Co., 28 Pell St., New York 

Quong Lee Co., 848 Grant Ave., San Francisco. 

Quong Mee Yuen Co., 16 Pell St., New York 

Quong Yuen Shing Co., 32 Mott St., New York 

Quong Tai Chong Co., 30 Pell St., New York 

Shing Tai & Co., 852 Grant Ave., San Fran- 

Shing Shun & Co., 909 Grant Ave., San Fran- 

Shun Yuen King Co., 849 Grant Ave., San 

Sun Kwong On Co., 28 Mott St., New York 

Ti Hang Lung Co., 846 Grant Ave., San Fran- 


Far East Drug Co., 551 Clark St., Chicago. 

Kin Quon Herb Co., 1049 Stockton St., San 

Kung Wo Co., 41 Mott St., New York City. 

Republic Drug Co., 704 Grant Ave., San Fran- 



Shanghai Co., 48 Mott St., New York City. 
Yan On Drug Co., 729 Washington St., San 


Asia Noodle Co., 10 Pell St., New York City. 

Canton Noodle Factory, 1135 Stockton St, 
San Francisco. 

Chinese Noodle Mfg. Co., 2210 Archer Ave., 

Hong Kong Noodle Co., 152 W. 22nd St, 

Hong Kong Noodle Co., 950 San Pedro St., 
Los Angeles. 

Hop Yuen Noodle Co., 195 Harrison Ave., 
Boston, Mass. 

Republic Noodle Co., 233 Plane St, Newark, 
New Jersey. 

Republic Noodle Factory, 1117 Stockton St, 
San Francisco. 

Three Stars Noodle Co., 2127 Archer Ave., 

Tsue Chong Co., 412 Eighth Ave., S., Seattle, 

Yat Gaw Main Co., 192 Park Row, New York 

Wing Yee Yuen Co., 41 Mott St., New York 


Ching Chong Co., 37 Mott St., New York City, 
Ohing Chung Co., 728 Jackson St., San Fran- 
Lai Sang Co., 724 Jackson St, San Francisco. 



Thos. G. Hong, 2129 Wentworth Avenue, 

Tin Fook Co., 737 Jackson St., San Francisco. 

Tin King Co., 732 Jackson St., San Francisco. 

Tie Sang Co., 737 Jackson St., San Francisco, 

Tin Sang Co., 2131 Wentworth Ave., Chicago. 

Tin Yuen Co., 1005 Grant Ave., San Francisco, 

Tong Gom Watch Co., 2121 Wentworth Ave., 



A List of Important Chinese Organizations in 

Chinese Benevolent Associations, in all large 

Chinese-American Citizens Alliances, in all 
large cities. 

Chinese Free Masons' Associations, in all large 

Chinese Nationalists' League, in all large 

Chinese Eeform Party, in all large cities. 

Chinese Chambers of Commerce, San Fran- 
cisco and New York. 

On Leong Merchants' Associations, in large 
Eastern cities. 

Chinese Restaurants Owners' Association, 16 
Mott St., New York City. 

New England Eestaurants Association, 19 
Harrison Ave., Boston, Mass. 

Chinese Students' Christian Association, 347 
Madison Ave., New York City. 

Chinese Students' Alliance, Movable. 

Chinese Young Men's Christian Associations : 
830 Stockton St., San Francisco, CaL; 8th St., 
Seattle, Wash.; 9 Pell St., N0w York City; 72 
Tyler St., Boston, Mass.; 250 W. 22nd St., Chi- 
cago, Hi* 

Chinese Young Women's Christian Associa- 
tions: 727 Harrison St., Oakland, CaL; 897 Sac- 
ramento St., San Francisco, CaL; 42 Mott St., 
New York City. 

Chinese Seamen's Institute, 211 Park Bow, 
New York City. 


A List of Chinese Publications in America 



The Chinese World, 736 Grant Ave., Saai 
Francisco, Cal, 

The Young China, 881 Clay St., San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

The Chinese Republic Journal, 18 Waverly 
Place, San Francisco, Cal. 

Chung Sai Yat Po, 800 Sacramento St., San 
Francisco, Cal. 

Kung Shong Yat Po, 247 West 22nd St., 
Chicago, 111. 


Chinese Eepublic News, 108 Park Bow, New 
York City. 

Chinese Reform News, 176 Park Row, New 
York City. 

Mun Hey Weekly, 16 Pell St, New York City. 


The Young China Magazine, 751 Clay St., 
San Francisco, Cal, 


China Review, 233 Broadway, New York City, 
The Chinese Students' Monthly, 225 W. 110th 
St., New York City. 


Chinese Y. M, C. A. Fellowship Notes, 347 
Madison Ave., New York City. 



A List of Christian Missions Undertaken by or in 

Conjunction With the Chinese Christians in 



Berkeley, 1917 Addison St., Congregational. 

Berkeley, 2605 Kegent St., Methodist Episcopal. 

Oakland, 619 Harrison St., Presbyterian* 

Oakland, 321 Eighth St., Methodist Episcopal. 

Oakland, 320 Sixth St., Episcopal. 

Oakland, 615 Webster St., Cumberland Presby- 

Oakland, 823 Webster St., Independent Baptist. 

Sacramento, 906 Fourth St., Baptist. 

Sacramento, 915 Fifth St., Methodist Episcopal. 

Sacramento, 622 I St., Congregational. 

San Francisco, 1 W'averley PL, Baptist. 

San Francisco, 936 Stockton St., Independent 

San Francisco, 925 Stockton St., Presbyterian. 

San Francisco, 966 Clay St., Episcopal. 

San Francisco, 829 Stockton St., United Christian 

San Francisco, 920 Washington St., Methodist 

San Francisco, 21 Brenham PL, Congregational. 

San Francisco, 1858 Laguna St., Congregational. 

San Francisco, 855 Jackson St., Cumberland 

Locke, Baptist. 

San Jose, 591 N. 5th St., Methodist Episcopal. 


Bakersfield, 2010 O St., Congregational. 
Los Angeles, 734 9th PL, Congregational. 
Los Angeles, 408 N. Los Angeles St., Presby- 


Los Angeles, 511 N. Los Angeles St., Methodist 

Mexicali, Methodist Episcopal. 

Pasadena, 510 N. Lake Ave., Methodist Episco- 

San Diego, 645 First St., Congregational. 

San Rafael, 926 C St., Presbyterian. 


Phoenix, S. Central Ave., Methodist Episcopal. 


Seattle, 625 Washington St., Baptist. 

Walla Walla, 15 N. 6th St., Interdenominational. 


Chicago, 225 W. 22nd St., Interdenominational. 
Chicago, 2131 Archer Ave., Independent. 


Philadelphia, 1002 Race St., Methodist Episcopal 
Philadelphia, 1006 Race St., Baptist. 


New York, 225 E. 31st St., Presbyterian, 
New York, 13 Doyers St., Baptist 
New York, 9 Pell St., Independent 


Boston, 16 Oxford St., Interdenominational. 
Boston, 72 Tyler St., Independent.